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How did the Qidan disappear?

Khitan, the name of an ancient nation, has been appearing in Chinese history books since the Northern Qi Dynasty. The Khitan nation originated in the Northeast region. Since its birth, it has been dealing with the Central Plains Dynasty continuously. Later, it established the powerful Liao Dynasty. The Liao Empire passed the throne to the nine emperors. Jin Dynasty perished.

The Liao Dynasty was very powerful in its heyday. Since the Liao people acquired the sixteen states of Youyun in the Later Tang Dynasty, it was always in a favorable position in the military confrontation with the Song Dynasty. After the alliance of Chanyuan, the Liao Kingdom had a relatively stable external environment, so its national strength was gradually enriched.

In addition, the rulers of the Liao Dynasty ruled the Han people relatively liberally, and adopted a two-house system (the Liao State established the north and the south two houses, the south house managed the Han land with Han law, and the north house managed the Khitan affairs), so the degree of civilization gradually improved, and the Liao Dynasty also It gradually developed into a country with a high degree of civilization, and the Song people commented on its “long-term kingship”.

Since it occupied northern China at that time, the Liao Dynasty was the dominant force in China’s dealings with Central Asia, Europe and other countries from the eleventh to the twelfth century. The pronouns of China, such as the gunpowder that China spread abroad, were called “Khitan Snow” in Europe at that time. Until now, the language of some Turkic and Slavic ethnic groups is read in Khitan, such as Russian.

However, the Khitan people who used to traverse northern China for hundreds of years have now disappeared, and you can no longer hear the ethnic group “Khitan”. As the Khitan regimes in the east and west were successively wiped out by Mongolia, we also lost the Khitan people. All traces, since then, on the map of North Asia still raging with war, we have never found its regime again, and even as a people, it has disappeared without a trace. However, according to historical statistics, after the fall of the Liao Dynasty, there were still millions of Khitans. Where did they all go? Where are their descendants?

The answer to this question is very simple, that is, they have been assimilated, but where their bloodlines are now scattered, it is worth talking about. First of all, the Liao Dynasty was destroyed by the Jin Dynasty, so many Khitan people in the northeastern region of their hometown naturally became Jin Dynasty nationals, and these people integrated into the Jurchen nation over time; The Jin Dynasty, so after the Mongolian crusade against the Jin Dynasty, this group of people defected to Mongolia to avenge the “revenge of the motherland”. They entered all parts of the country with the Mongolian army and dispersed to various regions of the country. These two parts are the majority of the Khitan ethnic group, but now they have basically been completely integrated into the blood of various ethnic groups in China.

The part of Liu Jin entered the Central Plains very early, and the Khitans who fought with the Mongols were later dispersed by the Yuan Dynasty to garrison all over the country. For more than 800 years, they have lived in Han for a long time. There is no difference between them and the Han people. Today, there are very few traces of Khitan left. At present, there is only one ethnic group with more Khitan ancestry in remote areas of Yunnan – “I”, about 100,000, who are descendants of the Khitan garrison.

There are also a small number of Khitan people whose blood is now in Central Asia. When we talk about these people, we need to talk about the special country of Xiliao. This country was after Jin destroyed Liao. established by sign. Since Emperor Tianzuo was a tyrant in the Liao Kingdom, many Liao people came to defect to Yelu Dashi. In 1130, Yelu Dashi proclaimed himself emperor, and still used the name of the Liao Dynasty. This is the Western Liao in history. Xiliao was later destroyed by the Mongolian Western Expedition, and its remnants were integrated into the local Muslim nation.

Of course, in the northeastern region, there are still some very small tribes or ethnic groups that are related to the Khitan people in their hometown, and the most recent one is the current Daur people. In fact, the Sinicization of the Khitans is just a very common thing in ancient Chinese history. The Khitans are just repeating the history of the “sinicization” of many ancestors such as the Southern Xiongnu, Xianbei, and Korea. After all, the ancient Central Plains was the center of the East Asian nation.

In China, through genetic technology, Daur and Yunnan Shidian, who have been suspected to be descendants of the Khitan, have recently been identified: after comparing the DNA of the Khitan female corpse, we found that the Khitan and the Daur have a direct genetic relationship; I have a similar paternal origin with the Daur people, and I am also a descendant of the Khitan.

In addition, we all know that “Shu Mulu” is a Manchu surname, derived from the Jurchen surname “Shi Mo” in the Jin Dynasty, but in fact, those Shu Mulu clan and those Jurchens who have now changed their surname to Shu are also descendants of Khitan: Jurchen Shimo clan In fact, the Shenmi family from Khitan. So to a certain extent, Lao She and Qiao Feng were originally both surnamed Xiao and both had Khitan blood.

Therefore, although the Khitan people did not converge into a force or a nation again, they did not completely disappear into the long river of history. After all, maybe someone around you has Khitan blood.

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