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Russian political system

Russia is located in the northern part of Eurasia, straddling the two continents of Europe and Asia, with a land area of ​​17.0982 million square kilometers. It is a multi-ethnic country composed of 194 ethnic groups. The main ethnic group is Russians.

The Russian Federation (РоссийскаяФедерация, The Russian Federation, abbreviated as: Russian Federation, Russia) is a federal republic and constitutional country with its capital Moscow.


On December 12, 1993, the Russian Federation held a referendum and passed the first constitution after Russia’s independence. On December 25 of the same year, the new constitution came into effect. This constitution established Russia’s French-style semi-presidential federal state system .

The Russian Federation practices a federal democracy. On the basis of the Constitution and laws of the Russian Federation, the functions are performed in accordance with the principle of separation of the three powers of the bourgeoisie legislative, judicial and administrative powers and mutual restraint and mutual balance.

The President is the head of state, with a term of 4 years. In 2008, the constitution was revised to 6 years, and it was directly elected by the people. The president has considerable executive power and has the power to appoint senior officials, including the prime minister, but must be approved by the parliament. The President is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Chairman of the National Security Council, and can directly issue decrees without the approval of the Parliament. The president cannot be re-elected for more than two consecutive terms.


The official name of the Russian Parliament is the Conference of the Russian Federation. According to the Russian Constitution, the Assembly of the Russian Federation is the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. The Federal Council adopts a bicameral system. The upper house is called the Federal Council and the lower house is called the State Duma.

The Federal Council (Upper House) is composed of two representatives from each of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation: one from the state representative authority and one from the state executive authority. Its main functions are to approve federal laws, changes in the federal subject’s borders, and the president’s decision The order of the state of war and the state of emergency determines the military stationing abroad, the presidential election and impeachment, and the relationship between the central and local governments.

The functions of the State Duma (House of Commons) are to approve the appointment of the Prime Minister by the President; decide on the issue of trust in the President; appoint and dismiss the Chairman of the Court of Auditors and half of the inspectors; implement an amnesty; file charges for the removal of the President of the Russian Federation; and pass federal laws.


The government of the Russian Federation is the highest executive body of state power. The Federal Government is composed of the Federal Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Federal Ministers. The Constitution also stipulates that the rights and status of all federal entities (republics, border regions, states, autonomous regions, and autonomous regions) are equal. The status of the subjects of the Russian Federation can only be changed after the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation have mutually negotiated in accordance with the Federal Constitution.


The judicial organs mainly include the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Supreme Court of Arbitration and the Federal Attorney General. Special courts are not allowed.

Whether the Federal Constitutional Court’s laws and decisions on the Federal Council and the State Duma, the orders of the Federal President, the documents of other federal agencies, the constitutions of the republics, the laws, statutes and other regulations of federal entities, and internal federal treaties and international treaties comply with the federal The constitution and whether the establishment and activities of social organizations conform to the constitution shall be ruled.

The Federal Constitutional Court also ruled on power disputes between federal state power agencies, between federal state power agencies and federal agencies of state power, and between federal agencies and state agencies.

The Federal Supreme Court is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases. In accordance with the litigation procedures stipulated by federal law, judicial supervision of court activities is carried out, and judicial practice issues are explained. The Federal Supreme Court of Arbitration is the highest judicial organ that makes decisions on economic disputes and other cases heard by the arbitration court. Implement judicial supervision of the activities of the arbitration court in accordance with the litigation procedures stipulated by federal law, and provide explanations on the issues of trial practice.

The Federal Prosecutor’s Office supervises the legality of criminal investigations, supports public prosecutions in the courts, institutes lawsuits in the courts for the protection of national interests, the rights and freedoms of citizens, and appeals to the courts for illegal acts committed by state agencies, local self-government agencies, and public officials. Raise objections.

The procuratorate system implements a centralized and unified leadership system. The Federal Council appoints judges of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Supreme Court and the Federal Supreme Court of Arbitration and the Federal Attorney General on the nomination of the President.

Political party

Russia implements a multi-party system and mainly has the following political parties: United Russia Party, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Just Russia Party, Yabolu Alliance, Right-wing Power Alliance, etc.


President: Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (inaugurated on May 7, 2012, was elected president for the third time).

Prime Minister: Mikhail Vladimirovich Mishustin (appointment announced on January 16, 2020).

Chairman of the Federal Council (Upper House of Parliament): Valentina Matvienko (inaugurated in September 2011).

Chairman of the State Duma (lower house of parliament): Sergei Naryshkin (inaugurated in December 2011).

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