How the Sumerians divide the unit of measurement

The earliest 12-unit and 60-unit metric division came from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris between 4000 BC and 2000 BC.

The current timekeeping methods commonly used in countries all over the world, that is, 60 minutes per hour, 24 hours a day, 12 hours on the scale of the clock, and the “beat” with 12 as the basic unit of measurement, are all developed on the basis of the 60 system. Yes, and the use of hexadecimal system is also passed down by the Babylonians and from the Sumerians to this day.

The Sumerians created the first high-level civilization of mankind. Invented the wheel and cuneiform writing, and divided the whole into 12 units (a year and 12 months, the concept of “a dozen”) and a measurement system of 60 units (minute hand). A unit of length equals 12 inches, and a unit of weight equals 1 pound. 12 ounces, one shilling is equal to 12 pence, even the imperial length of penalty kicks in football matches is 12 yards. Ten binary sources: The legend is ten fingers plus two feet. This was stipulated in the past, now it is stipulated that one dozen is 10. It is stipulated that a dozen of 12 is a 12-ary system.

A visionary king in Swedish history said that from the perspective of daily applications, decimal binary is more convenient than decimal. He had imagined before his death that the decimal system should be replaced by the decimal system within the scope of his jurisdiction.

The astronomical survey activities of the ancients promoted the development of geometry. In this process, they often needed to divide angles, halves, thirds, quarters…, of course, they had to solve the halving first. If the number is small, starting from two, three, four, five…, if the 60 base is used, since 60 is the common divisor of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, these angles can be divided equally, and If the 100 system is used, three equal divisions and six equal divisions cannot be realized. The reason why the ancients set the angle to 60 hexadecimal is very simple. It is for the convenience of measurement and drawing. By making a measuring square, the angle can be divided into many parts according to the reading.

Correspondingly a dozen-12 as the unit of measurement for the same reason-in order to make it easy to divide, whether it is 2, 3, or 4 can be divided into equal parts. Comparing Decimal and Decimal as a commonly used system, Decimal is better. It needs to be divided into 2, 3, 4, and 6 more than 2, 5, so just Decimal is used.

The Sumerians used the full moon to make up for a month. The year is divided into 12 months, of which 6 months each have 30 days, and the other 6 months each have 29 days, making a total of 354 days in the whole year. In this way, it takes more than 11 days less than the time for the earth to circle the sun every year, so they created a method for setting leap years. This is the solar calendar.

They also introduced a timing system that divides the hours into 60 minutes and 60 seconds per minute.

The use of numbers by the Sumerians can be said to have reached an unparalleled level: on a clay tablet found near the pyramid, a calculation problem was set out to multiply two numbers. If the final product is used In Arabic numerals, the result is a fifteen-digit number 195,955,200,000,000, which is the level of mathematical knowledge reached by the Sumerians 6000 years ago.

However, the Greeks around 500 BC still believed that the five-digit number 10,000 was simply an “incalculable value”. Anything over 10,000 was called “infinity.” For Europeans, it was not until after 1600 AD that mathematicians and philosophers such as Descartes and Leibniz were the first to use digits in calculations. However, in the concept of ordinary people in the West, it was only entering 19 It was only a century later that people began to understand the multi-digit number, so that the term millionaire became synonymous with the richest man with countless wealth.