Introduction to the Jesuit Church in Rome
The Church of the Gesu in Rome Church of the Gesu was the first Baroque building. The Jesuit church in Rome designed by famous architects and architectural theorists Vignola and Paoda in the late Italian Renaissance is a masterpiece of the transition from manipulative to Baroque style, and it is also called the first Baroque building.
The plan of the Roman Jesuit church is rectangular, with a holy niche protruding from the end, which evolved from the Latin cross shape commonly used in Gothic churches. The central hall is wide and the vault is full of statues and decorations. Two rows of small prayer rooms are used on both sides to replace the original side corridors. A dome rose in the middle of the cross. The altar decoration of the church is rich and free, and the mountain flower above breaks through the classical French style, and is used as an icon and decorative light.
The facade of the church draws on the approach of the small church of Santa Maria in Florence designed by the early Renaissance architect Alberti. The layered eaves and mountain flowers on the front door are made of overlapping arcs and triangles, and leaning columns and flat pilasters are used on both sides of the door. Two pairs of large scrolls are made on both sides of the upper part of the facade. These treatments were unique and were later widely imitated.
Baroque architecture is an architectural and decorative style developed on the basis of Italian Renaissance architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is characterized by freedom of appearance, pursuit of dynamics, and preference for rich decoration, carvings and strong colors. It often uses interspersed curved surfaces and oval spaces to express free thoughts and create a mysterious atmosphere.
Introduction to the church
The first Baroque building in the Church of the Gesu in Rome (1568-1602)
Manipulativeism moves towards the beginning of Baroque.
Use columns to form a coherent space, linking three different functional spaces.
Centralized altar space and Basilica handle the double-pillar form more coherently.
The façade is designed by Paoda. It no longer emphasizes the orderly arrangement. Instead, it strengthens a part in a flexible way to form a complex and attractive façade, which breaks the Aberty’s form in an orderly manner.
Architect: Vignola and Paoda
Two traditional motifs-a new positive interpretation representing the path of salvation and the dome representing heaven
The fusion of the dome and Basilica, the double-pillar segment leads the space to the central plane, weakens the side corridors, and the facade emphasizes the central entrance. The central entrance and exit are cylindrical, which has a stronger sense of convexity and concave than the pilasters.
Compared with Alberti’s S.Maria Novella in Florance:
Alberti’s facade: already very clear, the relationship between the nave and the side corridors, the pillars and the walls,
And the facade of Paoda: Double columns are used, and many layers are intertwined, the cornice is concave and convex, the light and shadow are more complicated, and the building is more prominent: there are triangular mountain flowers in the semicircular arch.
The meaning of architectural style
The Baroque style broke the blind worship of Vitruvius, the architectural theorist of ancient Rome, and also broke through the various rules and precepts formulated by the classicists in the late Renaissance, reflecting the secular thoughts yearning for freedom.
On the other hand, the Baroque church is magnificent and can create a very strong atmosphere of mystery. It also meets the requirements of the Catholic Church to show off wealth and pursue a sense of mystery. Therefore, after Baroque architecture began in Rome, it spread throughout Europe and even as far as the Americas. Some Baroque buildings are overly pursuing luxurious spirit, even to the point of cumbersome piles.
The little church of Santa Maria in Florence
The Florence Cathedral is actually a group of buildings consisting of a cathedral, a bell tower and a baptistery. It is located in Piazza Duomo and the adjacent Piazza San Giovanni in Florence today.