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The Northern Song Dynasty initiated three schools

The Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) is the dynasty after the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in Chinese history. There are nine emperors, namely Song Taizu Zhao Kuangyin, Song Taizong Zhao Guangyi, Song Zhenzong Zhao Heng, Song Renzong Zhao Zhen, Song Yingzong Zhao Shu, Song Shenzong Zhao Xu, Song Zhezong Zhao Xu, Song Huizong Zhao Ji, Song Qinzong Zhao Huan, a total of 167 years. The three studies were launched during the reigns of Song Renzong Zhao Zhen, Song Shenzong Zhao Xu, and Song Huizong Zhao Ji.

In view of the lessons of the five dynasty vassal rule in the late Tang Dynasty, the Song Dynasty adopted the national policy of invigorating culture and education and suppressing martial arts, that is, the original emphasis on martial arts was changed to the rule of culture. For this reason, the imperial court began to attach importance to imperial examinations and re-employed scholars. Officials of various levels of government and the army are also restricted by civilian officials.

As time went on, some people of insight believed that only focusing on imperial examinations without paying attention to education was like seeking gains without farming, and the contradiction between educating scholars and electing scholars had reached the point where they had to be resolved. Thus, starting with Song Renzong, there have been three educational campaigns.

The first time to start a school: Qingli to start a school Host: Fan Zhongyan

Qingli Xingxue was presided over by Fan Zhongyan in the fourth year of Song Renzong Qingli.

Fan Zhongyan (989-1052) served as a member of the governor in July in the third year of Qingli, and soon he filed ten reform proposals, requesting education and talent reform, and reforming the imperial examinations. In March of the following year, Renzong gave the ministers a discussion because of Fan Zhongyan’s “number of words to rejuvenate the school, the line to be true”.

Song Qi, Wang Gongchen, Zhang Fangping, Ouyang Xiu, and others deeply agreed, and jointly stated: “Teaching is not based on the school, and the scholars are not in the village, so the name cannot be verified. There is a sickness with a sound, and scholars specialize in recitation. , It’s not enough talent. I would like to refer to the people’s opinion, choose the one that is convenient for the present, if the envoys are all aboriginals and teach them in the school, and then the states and counties will monitor their performance, and the scholars will all cultivate their own talents.”

This means that if education is not based on schools, if scholars do not conduct inspections in the village, they cannot verify the name and reality. If you are blindly restricting the sound of poetry and prose, if students concentrate on memorizing, they will not be able to select talents. Refer to various suggestions and choose what is suitable for the current situation. It is better to make scholars live in their hometowns and educate them in school. Then the state and counties will examine their conduct, so that students’ learning can be improved. So he started school under the auspices of Fan Zhongyan.

Then what aspects have Qingli Xingxue changed?

First, local schools are generally established. It is required that all the prefectures and military capitals of all counties open schools, and schools can be set up if there are more than 200 students in the county. It also stipulates that “the scholars must study for three hundred days and listen to the pre-autumn fu: those who have filled the fu in the old days will end in a hundred days.” This sentence basically means that you must receive a certain period of school education before you can apply for the imperial examination. This measure prevents the school from becoming a mere formality and becoming a place for people to seek explanations for examinations, thereby ensuring the normal teaching order of the school.

Second, reform the imperial examinations. It is stipulated that the imperial examination examination shall be the first policy, second discussion, second poem and fu, and dismiss the pasting of scriptures and ink meanings. Strategies are equivalent to current affairs papers.

Third, reform Taixue. Because the original Guozijian was small in scale, it was not enough to accommodate scholars. That is, with the original Xiqingyuan as the site, a lecture hall was built, Taixue was established, and 200 students were enrolled. The teachers hired famous scholars to teach in Taixue, and in Taixue implemented the “divided fast teaching” system established by the famous educator Hu Ai. Hu Yuan’s teaching of sub-zhai divides the classics and the meaning, governs the world, and is used to study the basic theories of Confucian classics and learn practical knowledge of farmland, water conservancy, military, astronomy, calendar and arithmetic.

The implementation of “Qing Li Xing Xue” for more than a year failed because Fan Zhongyan was squeezed out of the court, but after all, it played a role in promoting the development of education in the Northern Song Dynasty.

Second Xing Xue: Xining Xing Xing Host: Wang Anshi

Wang Anshi was called by Lenin “the reformer of China in the 11th century”. With the support of Song Shenzong, he carried out a series of reforms, and the reforms carried out in cultural education were called “Xining Xingxue”.

Wang Anshi believes that the root cause of all the social abuses at that time was insufficient talents and improper employment. For this reason, in his letter to the letter, he put forward the four principles of “education, cultivation, acquisition, and responsibilities” for cultivating talents: “Teaching” means cultivating talents. “Nurturing” is to give reasonable treatment to talents. “Fetching” is the selection of talents. “Ren” means appointing talents.

In the second year of Song Shenzong Xining (1069), Wang Anshi served as the governor and presided over the reform plan.

First, reform the Taixue system.

First, expand the Tai school building. The entire Xiqing Institute was used as the Tai school building, and several lecture halls were built in the Xiyu of Chaoji Institute, which basically guaranteed the teaching, teachers and students’ work and living rooms.

Second, enrich and rectify the teachers of Taixue. It is stipulated that in addition to the officials in charge, the number of Taixue direct lectures shall be increased to 10, and each two persons shall be responsible for the lecture. In order to ensure the quality, the additional lectures must be selected by Zhongshu personally, or be performed by the competent officials.

Finally, create the “three homes method”. This is Wang Anshi’s most important measure to reform Taixue. The main content is: Divide Taixue into three grades with different degrees, namely, Waishe, Inclusion and Upper Shelter. Taixue students are divided into three parts correspondingly. Those who pass the examination and enter the foreign dormitory, are the foreign dormitory students.

Examinations are held once a month in the Waishe, and a public examination (including the promotion examination) is held every year. Those who have achieved the first-first and second grades will participate in the usual arts and be promoted to the inner school and become the inner school students. A promotion exam is held every two years in the inner house. Those who have excellent or fair scores will then participate in the usual arts and be promoted to the upper house to be a student in the upper house.

Shangshe also held an examination every two years. The examination method was the same as the “provincial examination method” of the imperial examination. The performance evaluation is divided into three grades: the best in the art and the academics tested is the top, one is excellent and the other is medium, and the whole level or one is excellent and the other is the inferior. The upper class is exempted from the palace exam and directly voted for officialdom, the middle class is exempt from the court exam and directly participates in the palace exam, and the inferior is exempt from the tribute exam and directly participates in the court exam.

The “Three Homes Method” is to establish a strict promotion examination system within Taixue. The investigation and selection of students strive to combine the usual arts with test scores, and the pros and cons of learning and the use of their positions. , This is conducive to mobilizing students’ enthusiasm for learning and improving the quality of Taixue teaching.

At the same time, the combination of the upper house examination and the imperial examination, and the integration of scholars and the selection of scholars from Taixue, undoubtedly improved the status of Taixue. In short, the “Three-House Method” is an innovation in the management and management system of ancient Chinese universities. It not only had a positive effect on the school education of the Song Dynasty, but also had a profound impact on the education of the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties.

With the implementation of the Sanshe Method, the scale of Taixue is also expanding. In order to guarantee the normal teaching of Taixue and its expenditures, 2500 yuan is allocated every year as education funds, and part of the money is drawn from the land rent and housing interest money in the state and counties to supplement the lack of tuition, which is the sustainable development of Taixue in the Song Dynasty. Provides the necessary economic protection.

Second, restore and develop local schools in prefectures and counties

In the Northern Song Dynasty, local schools in prefectures and counties were generally established, starting with “Qingli Xingxue”. However, Fan Zhongyan was soon squeezed out of the center. Apprenticeships in prefectures and counties have their names, but they are not true. In order to change this situation, after Wang Anshi took office, he immediately requested to restore and reorganize local schools.

Song Shenzong accepted Wang Anshi’s suggestion and carried out some reforms: First, the appointment and removal of school officials is directly controlled by the central government, and is solely responsible for the management of local education, and local authorities must not arbitrarily interfere with school affairs.

Second, the imperial court also allocated land for local schools, thus providing guarantees for the maintenance of schools in states and counties in terms of material conditions. The establishment of school fields in all prefectures has solved the problem of insufficient funds for state and county schools for many years, and created favorable conditions for the long-term development of state and county schools.

Third, run a professional school

In the fifth year of Xining (1072), the martial arts, which had been abandoned for nearly 30 years, was restored in the former site of the Temple of King Wucheng in Beijing. In the six years of Xining, he founded the law school in Chaoji Academy, and stipulated the teaching content and assessment methods. In the same period, medical rectification was carried out. Through these measures, the college education in the Northern Song Dynasty has entered a new stage of development.

Fourth, compile the “Three Classics and New Meanings” as a unified teaching material

In order to unify the thoughts and change the situation of “Everyone who talks about the Scriptures is unique”, in March of the sixth year of Xining, the Emperor Shenzong of the Song Dynasty set up the Bureau of Confucian Classics to interpret three Confucian classics: “The Book of Songs”, “Shangshu” and “Zhou Li” 》

Wang Anshi did not avoid fashions. The series of reforms made to education during the Xining period not only gave the education of the Northern Song Dynasty a turning point and entered a new stage of development, but also made himself an indisputable educational reformer. The image appeared in the history of ancient Chinese education.

The third school: Chongning School Host: Cai Jing

After Wang Anshi’s resignation and the death of Song Shenzong, the old and new factions within the imperial court started a see-saw-style struggle, and the policies changed repeatedly. After Huizong of the Song Dynasty came to the throne, in the first year of Chongning, Song Huizong appointed Cai Jing (1047-1126) as Shangshu Youpu shooter, hoping to inherit Xining’s new law to save the ruling crisis of the Northern Song Dynasty. Recovered and developed some measures of “Xiaoning Xingxue”, mainly including the following aspects:

First, schools are generally established in prefectures and counties. The county schools also set up elementary schools, and the three-houses method is also implemented in local schools. County students can be promoted to state schools, and state students can contribute to Taixue. So far, a network of schools throughout the country has been formed, which far surpasses any schooling in the past in terms of number, scale, and distribution.

Second, build and expand Taixue. In the first year of Chongning (1102), the Taixue Waishu was established in the southern suburbs of the capital, and was given the name Piyong. All the tributes who arrived at the first time also entered foreign schools. After passing the exams, they were added to the upper or inner dormitory before they could formally enter the Taixue. There are 200 people in the upper dormitory, 600 in the inner dormitory, and 3,000 in the outer dormitory.

Third, replace imperial examinations with schools. Because the world has generally established schools and implemented the three-chamber upgrade system, Chongning three years (1104) banned the imperial examination, all the scholars were promoted by the school, and each year’s examination of the students was like a trial in the Ministry of Rites. In the following year, he was given 35 students and nominated students, and later imperial examinations were performed in parallel with the election. In the third year of Xuanhe (1121), the old imperial examination system was restored, but Taixue still retained Chongning’s customization.

Fourth, set up specialized schools. In the third year of Chongning (1104), specialized schools of calligraphy, painting, and arithmetic were set up, using Taixue’s three-house method to test and select scholars. The painting study in Chongning period was the only special art school held in ancient China.

Although the above three school development campaigns failed to achieve the expected results in the first two, they all advanced the education of the Song Dynasty by a big step to varying degrees. The third school launch has played a more important role in promoting the development of education in the Song Dynasty than the previous two. Therefore, these three school promotion movements are the most direct and most important manifestation of the Song Dynasty’s policy of “prospering culture and education”.

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