Was the restoration of the country successful in ancient times?
In Chinese history, after the death of some dynasties, some survivors would devote themselves to the restoration of the previous dynasties. However, looking at China’s thousands of years of history, there is only one that has truly succeeded in the restoration of the country.
Because after the demise of a dynasty, the real restoration of the country is very difficult and requires a lot of manpower and material resources. In addition, the requirements for a comprehensive restoration are very high. Even in some dynasties, some people have won small victories, but they are not qualified. of. With such demanding requirements, which dynasty was China’s successful restoration?
Eastern Han Dynasty established
This matter has to start in 202 BC. In the society at that time, after the long-term separatist war in the late Qin and the Chu-Han War, Liu Bang finally defeated Xiang Yu and proclaimed himself emperor in Dingtao, Shandong, and his country was named Han. , The capital was Luoyang, and then the capital was moved to Chang’an.
This also means that the establishment of the Western Han Dynasty became a unified dynasty in China, with a total of 12 emperors, which lasted for 210 years. However, after the Han Yuan emperor succeeded to the throne, the imperial power fell behind due to the blows of his relatives and eunuchs. The Western Han Dynasty went through several emperors such as Han Chengdi, Hanaidi, and Hanpingdi. In 8 AD, Wang Mang unfortunately usurped the government and re-established a new dynasty. Since then, the famous Western Han Dynasty declared its demise.
At the end of the new dynasty, because of the large-scale green forest red eyebrow uprising that broke out, the world was in chaos. At this time, Liu Xiu also rose to the throne and later announced his ascension to the throne in Hebei. He also called the Emperor Ping of the Western Han Dynasty Emperor Kao. , The capital is Luoyang. After experiencing the Eastern Han Unification War that lasted for 12 years, Liu Xiu, the son of Han Guangwu, eliminated the separatist forces in Hebei, Guandong, Longyou, and Xishu, and ended the turmoil that had existed for many years in the New Dynasty. Established a unified political power, known as the Eastern Han Dynasty in history, and also known as the only empire successfully restored in ancient China. But how do you say this?
The Eastern Han Dynasty is known as the reason for the success of the restoration: Liu Xiu is a descendant of the Western Han Dynasty
It turned out that Liu Xiu’s identity was the ninth grandson of the Han emperor Liu Bang. “The Book of the Later Han Dynasty·The First Part of Emperor Guangwu”: Emperor Guangwu, Emperor Shizu, Yuxiu, Zi Wenshu, born in Nanyang Caiyang, grandson of the ninth emperor. Since the establishment of the Xia Dynasty, the ancient Chinese emperor’s succession has adhered to the principle of family and the world.
Whether it is the inheritance of the father, the brother and the last brother, or even the selection of children from the clan to inherit the throne, the principles are very clear. That is: as long as people have the blood of the royal family of the dynasty. Liu Xiu’s status as the ninth grandson of Liu Bang made the Eastern Han Dynasty not only consistent with the Western Han Dynasty in its national title, but also gave the Eastern Han and Western Han blood connections. This reason is an important reference standard for the success of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
The Eastern Han Dynasty was a unified and unified country, and the nature of the regime was the same as that of the Western Han Dynasty.
In addition to the bloodline requirements, the requirements for the success of the restoration of the country must also be blessed by the nature of the regime. For example, if the first dynasty that perished was a unified dynasty, then according to the criteria for successful restoration of the country, the dynasty established later must also be a unified political power. At the same time, this also means that the area of the country must be completely conquered. And these requirements all mean that there is little hope for the success of the restoration of the country.
For example, look at the dynasties in history. After the demise of the Western Jin Dynasty, although after the Yongjia Rebellion, the nobles and royal families of the Western Jin Dynasty moved south and established the Eastern Jin Dynasty in Jiankang City. However, the land area of the Eastern Jin Dynasty was far from that of the Western Jin Dynasty. It has not ruled the country, so it cannot be regarded as a success in restoring the country. Secondly, it was the Tang Dynasty. After Wu Zetian ascended the throne, he changed the country’s title. In a sense, Li Tang could be regarded as subjugated.
However, after Wu Zetian returned to power in Li Tang and Li Xian succeeded to the throne, it could not be regarded as a successful restoration of the country. Because the restoration of the country emphasizes that the descendants of future generations who have never claimed the emperor have regained the power through their own efforts, and those who have been emperors before have re-entered the throne. It is not counted.
However, Li Xian had already been emperor before, so it was not considered as a rejuvenation. In the later Nantang, although it had the same national title as that of Datang, his government could only be regarded as a local government, and its land area could not be compared with that of the big cow at the time—Datang. Therefore, Nantang was not a unified dynasty and could not be regarded as a unified dynasty. Successful restoration of the country.
In the Song Dynasty, the Northern Song Dynasty could not be regarded as a completely unified regime. The neighbors Liao and Xixia have always looked at it. What’s even more tragic is that after the Northern Song Dynasty, although the Southern Song Dynasty was restored, the land area was greatly reduced. In the Southern Song Dynasty, he was a person who rejoiced that he would have a blessing if he survived a catastrophe. “Bianzhou”, so it can’t be counted. Later in the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the slogans were very loud, and there were no successes.
However, the Eastern Han Dynasty is different. It is another unified Central Plains dynasty after the Western Han Dynasty in Chinese history. The name of the country is the same as that of the Western Han Dynasty. In terms of the scope of the country, it is also the same. It is not about subduing the local government, but a complete unification. Therefore, the nature of the government is completely consistent with that of the Western Han Dynasty. In addition, the people at that time also believed in the signboard of respecting the imperial family, thinking that the Eastern Han Dynasty was the Han Dynasty, and it was the Emperor Liu, who gave the world peace and peace.
In addition, the Western Han Dynasty paid much attention to the idea of ”harmony between man and nature” and “sovereign power granted by god”. The people regarded the emperor as the father of the king, and the father was robbed of the throne. Originally, the people didn’t recognize Wang Mang’s regime and thought he was a traitor.
Therefore, Liu Xiu succeeded as the ninth grandson of the Han emperor Liu Bang and immediately won the response from the grassroots. In addition, the posthumous titles of the emperors of the Han Dynasty were Xiaohui, Xiaowen, Xiaojing, and Xiaowu. They ruled the world with filial piety, and the propaganda of “filial piety” made by the Western Han Dynasty convinced the people. Therefore, the common people hope that there will be successors to the Liu family.
Under the patriarchal system of “filial piety”, Liu Xiu’s succession to the throne meets the requirements of the ancient patriarchal system. Because, in the ancient society that emphasized the patriarchal system, Liu Xiu’s succession to the throne meant that the Han system and stability could return to the confusion of the system. The Han Dynasty was a hereditary royal lineage under the rule of Confucianism. Even the early emperors of Guangwu, Ming and Zhang of the Eastern Han Dynasty paid great attention to highlighting the inheritance of the Eastern Han Dynasty from the Western Han Dynasty, and used it as a signboard to restrain people’s hearts. According to the analysis above, this signboard was very useful at the time.
More importantly, the Western Han Dynasty implemented a system of coexistence of prefectures and counties and sub-sealing. Liu’s descendants were divided into various regions of the country, and they had great autonomy, so the possibility of Liu’s descendants succeeding to the throne was very high. However, Liu Xiu recognized the usefulness of the “Han” sign, used it to decorate himself, and coupled with his arrogance as a “son of the plane”, only then established the Eastern Han regime with the nature of the regime recognized and the patriarchal identity recognized. For this reason, the Eastern Han Dynasty was called the only empire that successfully restored the country in ancient China.