Introduction to the works of “Rama Gongxinglu”
“Rama Gong Xinglu” is based on the Sanskrit epic “Ramayan” and the “God Ramayana” by an anonymous author. The structure is roughly the same, and the central story is the same, but the length is only Roughly half of the epic, only the central story and related plots are retained. The narrative poems are also divided into 7 pieces, 6 of which follow the epic titles.
“Rama Gongxinglu”, Rāmcaritmānas, रामचरितमानस, a long narrative poem from India in the 16th century. Also translated “Rama Gongxing Lake”. The author is Dullesidas (1532～1623), a Hindi poet.
“Rama Gong Xinglu” is divided into seven chapters, equivalent to more than 40,000 lines in Chinese.
The first chapter, “Childhood”, writes about Rama’s birth, growth, demons and marriage. The structure is more rigorous, and the plot and theme are directly or indirectly related. Unlike the epic, the heroine Sita was born a princess, not picked from the ditch when plowing the land.
The second “Ayodhya” focuses on two plots, one is that Rama abandons the throne and goes to the forest, and the other is that Bharata goes to the forest and asks Rama to return to Beijing.
Several characters such as Rama have been idealized in the epic, but the narrative poem is not enough, and these characters are written more in line with the ideal standard. Rama’s mother, Rama, and especially Rushmana, were taken by Rama. There was no complaint at the time of exile.
The third “Forest”, the fourth “Monkey Kingdom”, and the fifth “Wonderful Chapter” are all written relatively simply, abandoning the irrelevant plot, cumbersome and formulaic descriptions and cumbersome layers of narration in the epic. The development of the story is relatively compact.
The sixth chapter “Langa” (called “Battle” in the epic) describes the battle between Rama and the ten kings, Rama’s victory, and Sita’s return to Rama, removing the plot that Rama had doubts about Sita . The seventh “Part Two” deletes Rama’s abandonment of his pregnant wife, Sita’s embrace of the earth, and Rama’s killing of people of lower castes, etc., and rewrites the peace and prosperity after Rama ascended the throne, as well as the crow and the Dapeng His appearance and preaching of worshipping Rama.
“Rama Gongxinglu” and “Ramayanna” are more than 1,000 years apart, and each reflects the social reality of this era. The narrative poem directly wrote about the chaotic times at that time, condemning the king as “the people of fish and meat”, and exposing dark phenomena such as “hypocrites and liars are respected as saints” and “people who commit crimes are respected”.
In contrast to this chaotic society, the narrative poem also depicts the peaceful scene of the Rama dynasty, which is a kind of comfort to the people who suffered so much at that time. Some people think that epics are the works of the late slavery society or the early feudal society, while the narrative poems are the works of the late feudal society. The times are different, and the ethics and moral standards advocated by them are the same.
In order to explain this, some people believe that when Dullesidas wrote the “Rama Gongxinglu”, the Islamic people had invaded and settled in India, Islam had been widely spread, and Hinduism and Hindu culture had been greatly impacted. The author rewrites the great ancient epics to resist the penetration of Islamic culture and maintain Hindu civilization. This is a popular view in India.
About Narrative Poems
Narrative poems, like epics, use self-sacrificing methods to resolve power struggles in the royal family. The authors of the two long poems embodied ideal moral standards in the characters they wrote, especially Rama, portraying them in various ways, even at the expense of deification. Narrative poetry surpasses epic poetry in this respect. Some people believe that the main reason why it has such a big impact is that it successfully portrays ideal characters.
Not only the image of Rama is higher and more perfect than in the epic, but also the mother of Rama, Bharata and Rashmana. In the narrative poem, Rama represents the righteous side, and the ten kings represent the unjust and evil forces. The plot of the brothers of the Monkey Kingdom forcibly occupying their wives also wants to explain the problems of justice and injustice. Epic is handled more crudely, not as good as narrative poetry.
The narrative poem inherited the epic concept of monogamy, expressed more sympathy for Sita’s experience, and did not let her be abandoned. But the author’s view of women is still outdated and backward. He also developed the tendency of propagating religious superstition in the epic, maintaining the caste system, raising the position of Brahman, and showing his hatred of lower castes from time to time.
The entire story of the narrative poem was narrated by three characters and narrated one by one by three listeners. The whole poem is a neat metric poem, generally composed of 4 quaternions and 1 double-line poem. The language has been carefully refined, but it has not deviated from the level acceptable to ordinary people. Long poems are very successful in terms of rhythm and rhythm.
“Rama Gongxinglu” is the most influential work in the history of Hindi literature. For hundreds of years, it has been used as a literary model, religious classics, a treasure house of ethics, and an encyclopedia in central and northern India.