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Which country is Greenland from?

Greenland (Danish: Grønland; Greenland: Kalaallit Nunaat is located in the northeastern part of North America. It is one of the Danish territories (the other is the Faroe Islands) and the largest island in the world with an area of ​​2,166,313.54 square kilometers. Greenland lies in the north. The border between America and Europe connects the Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. The west faces Canada across the strait, the north faces the Arctic Ocean, the south faces the Atlantic Ocean, and the east faces the European Iceland through the Danish Strait.

The distance from Piridi in the north to Cape Favel in the south is 2,574 kilometers, and the widest point is about 1,290 kilometers. The coastline is more than 35,000 kilometers long. It is a Danish territory and the capital of Nuuk, also known as Gotthob. Inuit (Eskimo) residents are the majority. The island is cold all year round, which is a typical frigid climate. The summer temperature in coastal areas can reach above zero, while the inland parts are frozen all year round. Over 80% of the island’s land is covered by ice caps. , The total area of ​​the ice sheet amounts to 1,833,900 square kilometers.

It was reported on December 7, 2018 that Greenland’s glaciers are melting at an “unprecedented” rate for decades, and possibly thousands of years. If all of Greenland’s glaciers melt, it will cause global sea levels to rise by 23.6 feet ( About 7.2 meters).

Name origin

The official language of Greenland in Denmark, Danish, literally means “Greenland” (Greenland).

Why does this frozen, silver-clad land enjoy such a spring fame? There is such a story about the origin of the name of Greenland. Legend has it that in ancient times, around 982, the Norwegian pirate nicknamed “Erik the Red Hair”, he was rowing a small boat from Iceland, intending to sail across the ocean. Friends thought he was too courageous and sweated for his safety. Later, he found a grassland less than one kilometer in the south of Greenland. It was green and loved very much. After returning to his hometown, he proudly said to his friends: “Not only did I return safely, I also found a green continent!” So Greenland became its permanent name.

Greenland is the largest island in the world with an area of ​​2.166 million square kilometers. About 3/4 of the island is in the Arctic Circle. The annual average temperature of Greenland is below 0℃, and the coldest central inland area is the lowest. It can reach -70℃. Standing on the island of Greenland, chanting “Thousands of Miles Frozen, Thousands of Miles Snow Floating” can find the full feeling. The various icebergs and glaciers have become the wonders of Greenland, and they have rich associations.

History

Prehistoric

It is said that the Inuit people used the Canadian polar islands as a springboard to cross the sea from North America to northwest Greenland. They migrated many times, from 4,000 years ago to 1,000 years. Each great migration carries a different Inuit culture, known as the Saquak culture from about 1400 to 700 years ago, the Dorset culture from about 800 to 1300 years ago, and Dundas. (I.e. Thule) and Inusuk culture and so on.

Colonial

More than 1,000 years ago, the Inuit people from northern Canada moved to Greenland and settled in Greenland. For generations, they lived on fishing and hunting.

In 982 AD, Norwegian Eric (nicknamed “Erik the Redhead”) was expelled from Iceland for murder and came to Greenland to settle. In 985, Eric returned to Iceland,

In order to make people happy to go to this newly discovered land, it was named Greenland. In 986, he organized an expedition to explore Greenland, leading to the development of two major colonies: the Eastern Colony, near present-day Juliana Hob, and the Western Colony, near present-day Gotthob. These colonies had 280 farms in their heyday, with a population of as many as 3,000 people.

In the 11th century, Eric’s son Ericsson returned from Norway, where he had recently embraced Christianity, and introduced Christianity to Greenland. In 1126, Greenland established the first bishop’s position on the island. Greenland became a colony of Norway in 1261.

Manage

Since 1261, Greenland has belonged to the King of Norway. Prior to this, Knowles Greenland had always been a republic. After the original Knowles colony disappeared, Greenland has not seen colonial activity for a long time.

In 1380, Denmark and Norway allied, and Greenland was transferred to the joint jurisdiction of Denmark and Norway.

In 1721, Egerd, with the permission of the United Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, established a trading company and the Lutheran Mission near Gotthob, marking the beginning of the colonial era of Greenland.

In 1776, the Danish government monopolized Greenland’s trading activities. Since then, the coast of Greenland has been closed to the outside world.

After the partition of Denmark and Norway in 1841, they became a colony of Denmark. Later, Norway and Denmark had a dispute over the ownership of the island.

In 1933, Denmark and Norway agreed to submit this dispute to the Permanent International Court of Justice under the League of Nations. According to the results of the arbitration, Denmark obtained all the sovereignty of Greenland.

In 1950, the coast of Greenland was opened to the outside world. During the closure of the coast, Denmark tried to make Greenlanders gradually adapt to the outside world to avoid economic losses after the opening.

From about the 13th century, the immigrants of Knowles (that is, Norway) began to interact with the expanding Inuit Tule culture (appearing in northern Greenland around 1100). However, mainly due to the colder climate in Greenland, the Knowles colony declined in the 14th century and completely disappeared in the 15th century.

World War II

During the German occupation of Denmark (1940-1945), Greenland was protected by the United States. In 1945, Greenland returned to Denmark. After the war, Denmark responded to Greenlanders’ protests against their rule on the island. In 1951, the trade monopoly of the Royal Greenland Trading Company was canceled. After Greenland became part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953, Denmark embarked on reforms to improve the island’s local economy, transportation system, and education system. On May 1, 1979, Greenland gained internal autonomy.

During the Second World War, Greenland was once managed by the United States and returned to Denmark after the war. In 1953, Denmark revised its constitution and Greenland became a Danish state. Like the Faroe Islands, it also has two seats in the Danish Parliament.

Autonomy

In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community along with Denmark. However, as a North American island whose economy and survival are completely dependent on marine resources. It is completely unnecessary to be governed by Europe. Since May 1, 1979, Greenland has officially implemented internal autonomy, but diplomacy, defense and justice are still in charge of Denmark. On February 1, 1985, Greenland finally succeeded in freeing itself from the European Community through a referendum.

Since the establishment of internal self-government in Greenland, just like the Faroe Islands acquired in 1948, it has become a country with a special status under the name of the Kingdom of Denmark. A basic condition of the internal self-government is that the Greenland government manages Greenland affairs on its own, and only cases related to the Kingdom of Denmark are decided by the Danish judiciary. As part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the authority of the Danish representative in Greenland has been greatly reduced with the transfer of power from Denmark to the Greenland Self-Government.

Despite this, he is still the chief representative of Denmark in Greenland, managing Greenland’s internal affairs in accordance with the law, and is responsible for Danish elections in Greenland. In foreign affairs, Greenland cannot sign agreements on diplomatic relations with other countries. On the other hand, as a term of compensation, the Danish Constitution promises that all declarations related to Greenland will be noted to the Greenland Self-Government.

Greenland officially became autonomous on June 21, 2009. [3] In November 2008, Greenland held a referendum on autonomy, which won the support of three-quarters of the population. After Greenland’s self-government, the government will take over the natural gas resource management, judicial and police powers originally owned by the Kingdom of Denmark. Greenland will have some powers in foreign affairs, but the Kingdom of Denmark has the final decision on Greenland’s defense and foreign affairs. Greenlandic will become its official language.

Greenland is extremely rich in natural mineral resources, but resources including oil, natural gas, gold and diamonds are buried under the thick ice of the Arctic Circle, making mining difficult. But American experts believe that when global warming causes the huge ice sheet to melt, it will become easier to mine Greenland’s natural resources.

The Workers’ Party, the left-wing Greenland Party, won the election for the Greenland Self-Government Parliament held not long ago and became the largest party in the Greenland Parliament.

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