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Number of Poland Partitions

The partition of Poland refers to the partition of Poland between the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Austrian Empire from 1772 to 1795. Starting in the 17th century, Poland began to decline. In the 18th century, Poland’s territory began to be divided by three neighboring countries, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The division was divided into three stages, and the third stage led to The demise of Poland.

Carve up for the first time

In April 1764, Russia and Prussia formed an alliance against Poland and Turkey. In June 1767, the Russian army invaded Poland. In February of the following year, some Polish nobles led the armed struggle against Russia. In October, to prevent Russia from expanding into the Balkans, Turkey launched a war against Russia.

In July 1771, Austria and Turkey entered into a military alliance. Prussia also refused to implement the “Russian-Prussian Union Treaty.” In order to get rid of the diplomatic dilemma, Russia abandoned its plan to dominate Poland and agreed to the partition of Poland proposed by King Frederick II of Prussia. At the same time, Prussia is the alliance of Russia to make Austria, and Russia, in order to overthrow the Turkish-Austrian alliance, all agreed to Austria’s participation in the partition.

In August 1772, Russia, Prussia, and Austria signed a treaty to partition Poland in Petersburg. According to the treaty, Russia occupied Belarus and part of Latvia between the West Dvina, Drucky and Dnieper rivers, covering an area of ​​92,000 square kilometers and a population of 1.3 million; Prussia occupied Warmia and occupied Poland except for Gdansk. The provinces of Murray, Helmno, and Malbok except Torun have an area of ​​36,000 square kilometers and a population of 580,000; Austria occupies the provinces of Krakow, the southern part of Sandomierz, and most of Galicia, It has an area of ​​83,000 square kilometers and a population of 2.65 million.

The Polish Parliament was finally forced to recognize the treaty on September 18, 1773. The partition treaty caused Poland to lose 211,000 square kilometers (30% of the territory) and more than 4 million people (one-third of the population).

Second, carve up

In the 1880s, Poland’s small and medium aristocrats and representatives of the emerging bourgeoisie once again set off a patriotic reform movement. In 1789, the French Revolution broke out. Under the influence of the revolution, the Polish patriots hoped to regain their lost ground. They carried out a series of reforms and passed the “May 3rd Constitution” in 1791. Poland’s reform movement has met with hostility from neighboring countries, especially Russia.

In 1792, the Russian army entered Poland. 100,000 Russian commanders drove straight into Poland, occupied Warsaw, and Poland was defeated. Prussia also entered Poland on the pretext of preventing the spread of the French Revolution. On January 23, 1793, Russia and Prussia signed a partition agreement in Petersburg.

According to the treaty, Russia occupies Belarus (including Minsk), most of Ukraine on the west bank of the Dnieper River, and one part of Lithuania, covering an area of ​​250,000 square kilometers and a population of 3 million. The province and part of Mazovia have an area of ​​58,000 square kilometers and a population of 1.1 million.

After the partition was completed, the two countries notified Austria of this fait accompli, and Austria did not get any benefits.

The third carve-up

After being divided twice, Poland faces the danger of its final demise. On March 24, 1794, the Polish national hero Kościuszko led the Polish people to stage a national uprising in Krakow and repeatedly defeated the Russian army. In April, they occupied Warsaw and Wierta, established a revolutionary regime, and promulgated the Peasant Liberation Proclamation. In November, the Russian army, with the cooperation of Prussian and Austrian forces, suppressed the uprising. In order to eradicate the turbulence caused by the remaining power in Poland, the three countries of Russia, Prussian and Austria decided to “completely erase independent Poland” to solve the problem.

On October 24, 1795, the representatives of the three countries signed a partition treaty again, dividing the remaining Polish Commonwealth territory.

According to the treaty, Russia occupies most of Lithuania, West Belarus, Courland, Western Warren, and West Ukraine, covering an area of ​​120,000 square kilometers and a population of 1.2 million; Austria’s entire region of Lesser Poland including Krakow and Lublin Part of He Mazovia has an area of ​​47,500 square kilometers and a population of 500,000; it covers the rest of the western region, including the rest of Warsaw and Mazovia, with an area of ​​55,000 square kilometers and a population of 1 million. So far, Poland has been divided up.

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