The original meaning of Utopia
Utopia is originally means “no place” or “good place”. The extension is that there are still ideals and good things that are impossible to accomplish. The Chinese translation can also be understood as “Wu” means no, “Trust” means sustenance, “Bang” means country, and “Utopia” together means “Fantasy Country”. The original proponent was Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher.
Thomas Moore (British), the founder of Utopian Socialism, made a fictional voyage in his famous book “Utopia” (the full name is “A whole book about the most perfect state system and the new island of Utopia”). Home-Rafael Hisrad’s journey to a strange and exotic “Utopia”. There, property is publicly owned, the people are equal, and the principle of distribution on demand is implemented. Everyone wears uniform work clothes, eats in public restaurants, and officials are elected by the public. He believes that private ownership is the root of all evil and must be eliminated.
Utopia is the most beautiful society in human ideology, just like the “Utopian Socialism” in the early western period. The Utopian socialist society proposed by the French philosopher Louis Braun: beautiful, equal for all, without oppression, just like a paradise, utopian love is also extremely beautiful. Utopianism is a type of social theory, which attempts to promote these values and practices by presenting certain desirable values and practices in an ideal country or society.
By expanding the depiction of a certain concept (justice or freedom), in the form of an ideal community based on this concept, some of the fundamental properties of the concept are revealed. On some other occasions, such as Sir Thomas More’s Utopia (1516), its goal is mainly criticism and irony: to make a clever contrast between the good people in Utopia and the evils of the author’s society at that time. And condemned the latter. Only a handful of utopian authors—Edward Bellamy’s “Looking Backward” is a good example—in an attempt to transform society based on the blueprints carefully planned in their utopia. In its essence, the function of utopia is inspiring.
Until the seventeenth century, utopias were generally placed in geographically distant countries. The discoveries of European nautical expeditions in the 16th-17th centuries made people familiar with the world so that this useful design disappeared. Since then, the space where Utopia is located has either moved to outer space (the moon began to travel in the 17th century), or to the bottom of the sea (like the often found a continental civilization that sank in the Atlantic Ocean in the legend), or to the depths under the earth’s crust.
However, Utopia gradually changed from the transposition of space to the transposition of time. This progress was initially inspired by the notion of progress in the 17th century, and later by Lyell’s new geology and Darwin’s new geology. Encouraged by the vastly expanded concept of time in biology. Utopia is no longer a better space, but a better time. Wells (HGWells) took his time traveler to head for the future billions of years later, and Olaf Stapledon (Olaf Stapledon) in “Last & First Men” (1930) spent 2 billion years. To represent the ascent of mankind towards a completely utopian realm.
The transposition from space to time also gave rise to a new sociological realism in utopia. Utopia is placed in history at this time, but no matter how far away it is from the ultimate state of utopia, it can at least show that humans may inevitably be developing towards it. The connection between science and technology in the 17th century reinforced this trend, such as Bacon’s New Atlantis (1627) and Campanella’s City of the Sun (1637). ).
With the rise of socialism in the 19th century, which itself is deeply utopian. Utopianism has gradually become a debate about the possibility of socialism. Bellamy and the Utopia of Wells (Modern Utopia ) are powerful works in defense of orthodox socialism; but William Morris is in “News from the Land of Nothingness” (News form Nowhere, 1890) proposes another attractive litigation law.
This alternative term for this alien species emerged from the invention of “dystopia” (dystopia or anti utopia), which is a reversal and fierce criticism of all utopian hopes. This concept was foreshadowed by Samuel Butler’s anti-Darwinist book Erewhon (1872), and reached its culmination in the 1930s and 1940s, especially in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932) and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949).
In this bleak age, only BFSkinner’s Walden Two (1948) maintained the utopian torch, but there are still many people involved in this behavioral engineering. A nightmare more terrifying than the darkest dystopia is perceived in the utopia. But utopianism was revived in the 1960s, such as works such as Herbert Marcuse’s An Essay on Liberation (1969); and in the futuristic and ecological movements. It can be seen its vigorous vitality.
Utopias often have a broader meaning. It is generally used to describe any imagined and ideal society. Sometimes it is also used to describe the attempts of society to turn certain theories into realization. Often Utopia is also used to express some good, but unachievable (or almost impossible) suggestions, wishes, plans, etc.
But with the spiritual progress of society, there is now a deeper meaning, which can already refer to beyond the inaccessible place.