What’s Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)?
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) or respiratory disease Acute serious Caused by a virus in the Coronavirus family. (Coronavirus) was originally found only in small animals. But later mutated Infection occurs in humans. And spread quickly In the initial stages, people infected with flu- like symptoms such as fever above 38 degrees Celsius or lung and respiratory infections such as dry cough or difficulty breathing, etc. The first SARS report occurred in the month. November 2002 in China spread to more than 20 countries in Asia, North America, South America, including Europe, and no epidemic reports have been found. Since 2004.
Symptoms of acute respiratory illness
Patients will have symptoms after receiving the virus for about 2-7 days. Some may have an incubation period of up to 10 days. In the initial stages, symptoms often resemble influenza. Including may have various symptoms as follows:
- Fever above 38 degrees Celsius
- Dizziness, headache
- So tired
- Body aches
- Lung and respiratory tract infections Causing dry cough, sore throat, difficulty breathing, and the risk of hypoxia in the blood Until death In severe cases You should see a doctor immediately if you experience symptoms of lung and respiratory infections. Or have symptoms similar to the flu after traveling or returning from an epidemic country If left untreated, it may be fatal.
Causes of serious acute respiratory illnesses
Scientists state that the cause of SARS is The virus that belongs to the same family as the Coronavirus, which is a common cold virus, is found in small animals. And the virus mutation and spread until causing infection in humans.
The SARS virus is spread through secretions through multiple channels, such as:
- Coughing or sneezing
- Kissing or hugging with an infected person
- Eating or drinking with people who are infected.
- Being close to an infected man within 3 feet
- Picking up items that are contaminated with secretions of the infected person. Do not wash hands and come into contact with one’s own eyes, nose, or mouth
Diagnosis of acute respiratory disease
If found to have a high fever after traveling or returning from the country that has the epidemic The doctor will diagnose from the medical history and symptoms of the patient. Together with additional tests for the following diagnoses.
- Blood tests for antibodies or antibodies that are responsible for removing foreign matter or fighting viruses
- Examination of phlegm or collecting specimens in the nose and throat To detect the virus
- Lung x-rays or CT scan at the thoracic area in patients with coughing Or difficulty breathing Which indicates the Lung and respiratory infections
- Detection of the genetic material (RNA) of the SARS virus in the event that it needs to be confirmed for sure. But can be examined in some hospitals only
Treatment of acute respiratory illnesses
People with symptoms that fall under or have been diagnosed with SARS need to be separated to reduce the spread. Spread the virus and monitor symptoms in the hospital There is currently no specific and effective treatment for patients with SARS. But can be treated to alleviate the symptoms With the following guidelines.
- Using a respirator To increase the oxygen level in the body of patients with breathing problems
- Antibiotic use To treat infections in patients with symptoms of pneumonia or bacterial pneumonia
- The use of steroids to reduce swelling of the lungs
- May use antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin.
However, doctors may consider and look for different treatments. Due to insufficient research evidence regarding the effectiveness of the treatment Certain methods of treatment cannot be applied to all SARS patients.
Complications of serious acute respiratory disease
SARS is a serious acute respiratory illness. 90% of people infected can recover from the disease, which means that another 10% are unable to recover from the disease and eventually die. Most patients have complications of pneumonia or pneumonia. People who have breathing problems If severe symptoms may be necessary, use a respirator. Some people may have respiratory failure. Or other complications such as heart and liver failure, etc. in the elderly 60 years or more, especially those with diabetes, hepatitis, or heart disease, are at the highest risk of complications and death.
Prevention of serious acute respiratory illnesses
At the moment, no outbreaks have been reported since 2004, but if there is an outbreak Disease prevention methods The best SARS is to Avoid places that have spread of disease. If there is a need to be close to or take care of people infected with the virus Reduce your risk of contracting a virus by following these guidelines.
- Wear a mask to cover both the mouth and nose in a crowded place or a spread of disease. Hands should be washed before and after wearing a mask. After used, should be discarded in the trash. The mask should not be exposed to other items and should not be reused.
- Wash your hands regularly With soap or a hand wash gel with at least 60% alcohol
- Wear disposable rubber gloves. If it is necessary to contact the patient’s liquid secretions or feces After use, should dispose into the trash immediately and wash hands thoroughly
- Clean personal items such as containers, towels, sheets, or clothing for people infected with viruses with cleaning products and hot water.
- Use an antiseptic to clean the area of secretions contaminated, such as saliva, mucus, vomit, urine, or feces of the infected person. Should wear rubber gloves while cleaning