Italian architectural style classification
There are many forms of Italian-style architecture: Baroque, Rococo, Rome, Byzantium, Gothic, etc. during the Renaissance; and then there are Tuscany, Venice, and Milan. The Italian style is the meaning of the general style in the ancient Greco-Roman tradition. It has developed into the dignity of people and the awakening of scientific value.
Gothic style architecture
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that originated in France in the second half of the 11th century and was popular in Europe during the 13th to 15th centuries. Typical Gothic architecture is mainly seen in Catholic churches but also affects secular architecture. Gothic architecture occupies an important position in the history of architecture with its superb technical and artistic achievements.
The most famous Gothic buildings include Notre Dame Cathedral in Russia, Milan Cathedral in Italy, Cologne Cathedral in Germany, and Westminster Cathedral in England, which are typical representatives of Notre Dame Cathedral.
Gothic architecture was developed with France as the center. In the 12th and 15th centuries, urban handicrafts and commerce guilds were quite developed, and a certain degree of democracy was implemented in the city. The citizens built churches with great enthusiasm to express their cities by competing with each other. In addition, the church was no longer a purely religious building at that time. It has become the center of urban public life, a city hall, a public auditorium, and even a market and theater. During religious festivals, churches often become lively venues for competitions.
The characteristic of Gothic architecture uses pointed vaults, flying buttresses, slender beam columns, and long windows inlaid with stained glass in the design to create a strong religious atmosphere in the church. The plan of the church is still basically a Latin cross, but a pair of tall towers are added on both sides of the western door. Create a light and slender flying feeling.
And the new frame structure increases the strength of supporting the top so that the whole building has straight lines, a majestic appearance, and empty space in the church. The pointed vault is generally changed from the cylindrical vault of Roman architecture to the pointed vault. (Pointed Arch, or simply called Gothic Arch), the thrust acts on the four arch bottom stones so that the height and span of the vault are no longer restricted, and it can be built large and high. And the pointed rib vault also has a visual hint of “upward”.
In 395 AD, the Roman Empire, with Christianity as its state religion, split into two empires, the East and the West. History calls the Eastern Roman Empire the Byzantine Empire. Its rule lasted until the 15th century and was destroyed by the Turks in 1453. The territory of the Eastern Roman Empire was centered on the Balkan Peninsula, including Asia Minor, the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, etc., and was the capital of Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire was based on the aristocratic lifestyle and culture of ancient Rome. As a result of trade exchanges, it blended the cultural colors of Eastern Arabia and Islam, forming a unique Byzantine art.
The characteristic of Byzantine architecture is the small difference between the horizontal and vertical lengths of the cross, and the intersection of the cross is a large dome. The dome is built on a square plane, covering the dome, and the weight is placed on four independent pillars, which is a great contribution to the development of European architecture. Hagia Sophia is a typical Byzantine architecture. Its base is the same as the Romanesque building, rectangular, but the central part of the roof is composed of a huge circular vault and a semicircular vault at the front and back.
In architecture and interior decoration, the earliest achievements are shown in the Christian church, which originally followed the Basilican style. But by the 5th century, they created a new architectural form, the centralized form. The characteristic of this form is the structural form of supporting the dome on four or more independent pillars, and the sail arch is used as an intermediate connection. At the same time, groups of domes can be brought together to form a broad and varied new spatial image. Compared with the vaults of ancient Rome, this is a huge improvement.
Roman architecture is an architectural style that was popular in Christianity in Europe during the 10th to 12th centuries. Roman architecture was originally meant to be a Roman architectural style building, and it was translated into Roman style, Romanesque, and Roman-like architecture. Roman architecture is more common in monasteries and churches. Roman architecture inherited the early Christian architecture, using some traditional methods of ancient Roman architecture such as semicircular arches, cross arches, etc., and sometimes simplified classical column styles and detailed decorations.
After a long period of evolution, the wooden structure roof of the Christian churches was gradually replaced by vaults, and the Roman arch voucher technology was continuously tested and developed. Buttresses were used to balance the transverse vertebral force of the heavy vault. Later, skeleton voucher gradually replaced it. Thick vault. The plane is still a Latin cross. In response to the need to worship sacred images and holy objects, a number of small worship rooms were added at the east end, and the planar form became more and more complicated.
The wall is huge and thick, with a series of small coupons on the wall, and a concentric multi-layer small round coupon at the entrance of the door to reduce the heavy feeling. There are one or two bell towers to the west, and sometimes there are bell towers at the intersection of the Latin cross and the horizontal hall. The large and small columns in the central hall are arranged alternately and rhythmically. The narrow window creates a dark and mysterious atmosphere in the larger internal space. The simple central hall is in contrast with the gorgeous altar, and the larger space changes in the central hall and side corridors break the sense of balance of classical architecture.
With the development of Roman architecture, the central hall is getting higher and higher. In order to reduce and balance the transverse vertebral force of the arch of the towering central hall and adapt the vault to different sizes and forms of planes, Gothic architecture was later created. Roman architecture, as a transitional form, the contribution is not only to combine the heavy structure with the vertical upward momentum but also to organize the high tower into the complete composition of the building for the first time in the history of architecture. Famous examples of Roman architecture include the main church complex of Pisa, Italy, and the main church of Worms, Germany.
The original meaning of the word Baroque is weird and weird, and classicists use it to refer to this architectural style that is considered deviant. Baroque architecture is an architectural and decorative style developed on the basis of Italian Renaissance architecture in the 17-18th century. It is characterized by freedom of appearance, the pursuit of dynamics, preference for rich decoration and carvings, strong colors, and often interspersed curved surfaces and ellipses. Space, this style played an important role in opposing rigid classical forms, pursuing a free-spirited style, and expressing secular tastes.