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How did Ethiopia face the invasion of Western colonialism

Ethiopia, in the Horn of Africa, is a rugged, landlocked country split by the Great Rift Valley. With archaeological finds dating back more than 3 million years, it’s a place of ancient culture. Among its important sites are Lalibela with its rock-cut Christian churches from the 12th–13th centuries. Aksum is the ruins of an ancient city with obelisks, tombs, castles and Our Lady Mary of Zion church.

The history of Ethiopia is a history of aggression and resistance, oppression and struggle. The early Western colonists invaded other countries around the world to strengthen themselves, and Ethiopia was one of them.

In the 16th century, Portugal and the Ottoman Empire invaded one after another, and the Christian and Islamic forces each cited one side as Austrian aid. The first Muslim Sultanate of Adal won the battle of Simbulakul in 1529, the battles of Antukya and Anbasel in 1531. However, in the Battle of Venadaga in 1543, Ethiopian Emperor Galavidvos, with the help of the Portuguese, severely damaged the Islamic Sultanate of Adal.

During the Crusades, the West made up a legend that there was a powerful Christian monarch far in the East, the priest King John, and his alliance with him helped to resist Islam. This legend attracted European Catholics to Ethiopia. They first searched for the priest King John in Central Asia, but did not find the Nestorian Christian prince there; people thought that the priest King John was an Ethiopian emperor. Portugal has established relations with Ethiopia since 1520, and European literature pays no less attention to this matter than the discovery of the American continent. However, the appearance of the Portuguese did not bring benefits to Ethiopia. The Egyptian-Indian fleet that the Portuguese drove from the adjacent sea was quickly replaced by the Turkish fleet.

The Turks conquered Egypt in 1517 and settled in the Arabian Peninsula. They first clashed with the Portuguese and then quarreled with their ally Christians in Ethiopia. Since then, Lebna Dangar’s rule has been threatened, and his kingdom has been hit by the fiercest Muslim attack ever before and is immediately destroyed. The riot was triggered by an uprising in the southeast. After the departure of the Egyptian-Indian fleet, the businesses that depended on it collapsed immediately. The southeast fell into poverty. The Turks immediately supported the riot from the Arabian Peninsula. The riot lasted from 1523 to 1523. In 1543.

Minas (reigned from 1559 to 1563), Sartsa Dengal (reigned from 1563 to 1597) and Susenyos (reigned from 1607 to 1632) were forced to face 3 new problems: Turks attacked on the coast of Eritrea, but Ethiopia won in 1578 and 1589, Turks were expelled; Oromo emigrated in large numbers, they almost all over the kingdom; and Ignatius. Catholic propaganda carried out by missionaries sent by Loyola who came with Portuguese soldiers.

The missionaries wanted the country to convert to Catholicism. Their efforts were quite effective. Emperor Susnillos believed that he could announce the country’s conversion in 1626. This change is very natural, because the Egyptian Coptic Church tried to form a short-term alliance with Rome (1595-1610), but due to unreasonable demands made by missionaries in Ethiopia, a large number of Christians who firmly adhere to their original faith rose up against it. They and the emperor, in 1632, when the civil war became increasingly fierce, Susnillos abolished the alliance with Rome and abdicated.

British troops invaded Ethiopia in 1867. In 1887 the Sudanese Mahdi army invaded. In 1889, Menelik II became emperor, unified the country, established the capital of Addis Ababa, and established the territory of modern Ethiopia. In 1896, Menlinik II led his troops to defeat the Italian army in Adwa, and Italy was forced to recognize Ethiopia’s independence.

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