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What kind of city is Axum

Aksum is a city in northern Ethiopia. It’s known for its tall, carved obelisks, relics of the ancient Kingdom of Aksum. Most are in the Northern Stelae Park, including a huge fallen pillar, now in pieces. Centuries-old St. Mary of Zion is a Christian church and pilgrimage site believed to have housed the biblical Ark of the Covenant. The neighboring Chapel of the Tablet is said to contain the Ark today. – Google –

Axum is a historic city in Ethiopia, on the northern plateau, 19 kilometers east of Adwa and 2,135 meters above sea level. Built around one thousand BC, it was once the capital of the Aksum Empire. Ancient buildings and cultural relics such as Aksumdo Temple, sculptures, inscriptions and granite obelisk.

Now it is a distribution center for coffee, grains, animal products and honey. It is famous for producing exquisite woven products, leather and metal products.

City origin

Axum was a country in Northeast Africa BC or early AD. Its capital was Axum City (now part of Tigray Province in Ethiopia). In the first century AD, it was mentioned for the first time in “The Ring of the Red Sea” written by an ancient Greek businessman. During the reign of King Ezana (320-360), he conquered the Ethiopian plateau, Meroe and Southern Arabia, and concluded an alliance treaty with the Roman Emperor Constantine. The country was extremely prosperous and he was called “the king of kings.” “. Ezana also converted to Christianity and promoted the new phonetic alphabet, making Aksum the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as its state religion.


Axum’s commerce is developed, domestic and foreign trade is quite active, and the main port for foreign trade is Abdullis. According to the 1st century “Return to the Red Sea”, the export products of Axum’s foreign trade include ivory and rhino horn, and the imported products include cloth, copper, iron, and alcohol from Egypt, Persia, India and other places.


In terms of social culture, after Ezana converted to Christianity, Christianity was widely spread, and the church played an important role in the country’s political, economic, and cultural life.

The research on Aksum originally only relied on some sporadic literature records. After the 19th century, the research began to combine stone inscriptions and archaeological materials. Travelers in the 19th century have begun to record surviving sites, buildings and inscriptions, and have published various research results. After the Ethiopian Archaeological Institute was established in 1952, it began systematic work. It investigated and excavated the urban sites of Aksum, Matala, Yeha, etc., and unearthed a number of churches, palace sites, and residential sites of ordinary residents, as well as dams. And buildings such as the market, stone tablets, statues and bronzes, pottery, treasures, and ancient coins were also found.

Through investigation and excavation, we have a better understanding of the distribution of residents, urban layout, cultural characteristics, and economic conditions of the Axum Kingdom. At the same time, he also has some understanding of the culture of the previous period of Aksum, which helps explain the uniqueness of the origin and development of Aksum civilization. However, at present, there is little work in excavation and research, and there is not much knowledge about the political institutions and administrative systems of the Axum Kingdom. These all need to be further studied in the future.

Tourist attraction

The ruins of the Kingdom of Axum are located in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia, which was once the center of ancient Ethiopia. At the beginning of the 3rd century, the city of Axum and the kingdom of Axum became famous for a while. The Greek poet Mani at the time called this ancient Ethiopian kingdom the third-largest kingdom in the world at that time. Many monuments in the city are witnesses to this great historical period. Among the many historical sites, the large stone stele is particularly prominent. In addition, there are huge stone tables, stone benches, broken stone pillars, and royal tombs, indicating that this ancient kingdom has a glorious history.


The Aksum civilization is an important civilization in ancient Africa, and its scope is roughly in northern Ethiopia and western Eritrea. The climate here is warm and humid in ancient times, and the soil is fertile, which is very suitable for human reproduction and development. In the 1st century AD, the Kingdom of Aksum rose up, and the capital was established in Aksum.

In the 4th century AD, King Ezana of Axum began to believe in Christianity, and the status of the archaeological site of Axum as the religious center of the Axum kingdom was determined. Even if the capital was later moved to Lalibela, the coronation ceremony of the new king was still held here.

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