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Which nationalities ruled Mongolia during the pre-Mongolian period

Before the formation of the Mongols, they underwent the rule of the Huns, Xianbei, Rouran, Turkic, Shigas and Chubu, and Khitan.

Huns period

In the early Mongolian region in the hinterland of the Asian continent, there were three nomadic tribes: Yuezhi, Xiongnu, and Donghu. In 209 BC, Mao Dundan of the Huns established the first country in the history of Mongolia.

The Xiongnu became a powerful nomadic tribe and opposed China’s Qin and Han dynasties for a long time.

However, the powerful nomadic empire did not last long. After fierce internal disputes and external military attacks, it gradually declined. Although it was unified and invaded year after year due to the Chinese civil war in the early Eastern Han Dynasty, the Huns were divided into two Huns in the north and the south in 48. In 155, the North Huns collapsed under the Xianbei conquest. It was finally defeated by the Dinglings in 158; the Southern Huns were divided into five by Cao Cao in 216. The Qin and Han empires set up counties and counties in the southern part of the Monan region.

Xianbei Period

The origin of Xianbei is still inconclusive. It is believed that it belongs to one of the so-called Donghu tribes in Chinese historical materials. In the middle of the second century, Xianbei rose under the leadership of Tan Shihuai and established the Xianbei nation, occupying Mongolia and some areas in the northern part of the Han Dynasty. And further penetrated into the northern border of China during the Wei and Jin dynasties, to the period of Wuhu and Sixteen Kingdoms.

There are countries established by Murong Xianbei, Bald Xianbei, Qifu Xianbei, Duan Xianbei, Yuwen Xianbei, Tuoba Xianbei; in 386, a branch of Xianbei Tuoba established the Northern Wei Dynasty and unified China after the Five Hus and Sixteen Kingdoms. In the north, it remained ruled until 581. During this period, there were other ethnic groups active in Mongolia.

Rouran period

In 402, the leader of Tuoba Xianbei’s Beie (slave) Rouran was called Khan. Rouran dominated the Mongolian grasslands for the next 100 years. There were many wars between the Northern Wei Dynasty and Rouran. In 552, the Rouran people were defeated by the Turkic Khan on the Mongolian plateau, and the Rouran Khanate collapsed.

Turkic period

In 552, the Turks defeated the Rouran Khanate and became a new kingdom in Mongolia. In 583, the Turks split into the Eastern and Western Khanates. In the end of the Sui Dynasty and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, the East Turkistan was conquered and conquered by the Tang Dynasty, although it was prosperous for a while due to the civil unrest in China and invaded year after year after repeated defeats with the Sui Dynasty. Incorporated into the territory, but after 681 the Turkic regained the country and successively invaded Wu Zetian’s Wu Zhou, causing varying degrees of destruction to the Wu Zhou border.

Huihe period

Huihe is a small part of Chile, originally a tribe under the Turkic tribe. In the third year of Tang Tianbao (744), the Uyghur Alliance led by Guli Pei Luo, with the assistance of the Tang Empire army, overthrew the Turkic Khanate and killed the Turkic Khan. In the beginning, the relationship between Tang and Huihe was based on peace. However, in 762, he took the opportunity to blackmail the chaotic Tang Dynasty and regained Luoyang on the condition of plundering Luoyang City, thus playing a certain role in suppressing the Anshi Rebellion.

In the 9th century, due to the long-term war against Tubo caused civil strife, coupled with the ruling innocent, it was eventually destroyed by Gaz dispatched 100,000 troops in 840.

The period of Pigas and obstruction

After the destruction of Huihe, some Huihe people moved south to Khitan due to the subjugation of the country, and most of the Huihe people moved westward to an oasis city-state in the Tarim Basin in Central Asia. A small part remained in place. During this period, both the north and the south of the desert were occupied by Pigas. In the east, there was a Turkic-speaking block tribe, until it was defeated by Yelu Abaoji in 924.

Khitan period

Khitan was first seen in historical records in 405 years, and its origin is still inconclusive. According to Chinese historical records, it claims to be “after the Qingniu and Baima”, and it is said that it originated from the Xianbei tribe of the Duan family.

In 907, Yelu Abaoji was called Khan.

In 916, the Khitan leader Yelu Abaoji established the Great Central Hulizhi Khitan Kingdom. The Inkidan settlement area is in the upper reaches of the Liao River, and after 938, it ruled the Yanyun Sixteen Prefectures of the Han Dynasty at that time, and the country was named “Liao”. Later, the people of the Northern Song Dynasty also followed this name, and in 1125 the Khitan kingdom in the central Huli was destroyed by the Jurchens.

The Great Central Huli only covers most of the Mongolian region in its heyday. In its heyday, the territory northeast to the Sea of ​​Japan, from the north to the Selenge River and Shileka River in central Mongolia, to the Altai Mountains in the west, and bordering the Northern Song Dynasty in the south. .

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