The origin of Xiaoman
Xiaoman, the eighth solar term in the twenty-four solar terms, and the second solar term in summer. Every year between May 20 and 22, when the sun reaches 60° of the yellow longitude, it is considered Xiaoman. After Xiaoman, the weather gradually changes from warmer to hotter, and precipitation will gradually increase. There is a folk saying that “small man and big river are full”. Xiaoman, marking the debut of the hot summer. As for this, things are small and full: summer crops such as wheat have full but immature grains, so they are called Xiaoman.
For the northern regions, Xiaoman often has the longest sunshine time among the 24 solar terms. “Give a little sunshine is bright.” Coupled with dry air, the temperature in some parts of the north easily surpasses that of the south. Xiaoman has three times, one shows bitter vegetables, second waits for death, and third waits for wheat to fall. In the small full season, the early spring crops are about to be harvested, the mid-season rice is fully planted, and the farming is busy.
The name of Xiaoman has two meanings. First, it is related to agricultural weather. “Xiaoman, in mid-April, it is said that the air of wheat is so far as Xiaoman, because it is not ripe.” Second, it is related to precipitation. The proverb says: “Small and big rivers and rivers are full.” Heavy rains began to increase in the south, and precipitation was frequent. Fullness can refer to both the ripeness of the grain and the surplus of rain. The agricultural proverbs in the southern region gave Xiaoman a new meaning: “Xiaoman is dissatisfied, dry and cut off the land”; “Xiaoman is dissatisfied, and the awns don’t care.”
The “Monthly Order Seventy-two Hou Jijie” described, “In mid-April, those who are small and full are so small that things are so small that they are full.” At this time, the grains of summer crops such as wheat in the northern regions of the country have begun to fill up, but they are not yet mature. It is about the late stage of milk maturity, so it is called Xiaoman. It is a solar term that indicates changes in phenology.
The agricultural proverbs in the south give Xiaoman a new meaning: “Xiaoman is dissatisfied, dry and cut off the land”; “Xiaoman is dissatisfied, and the awns don’t care”. The term “full” is used to describe the surplus or lack of rainwater, and it points out that if the field is not full of water when it is full, it may cause the ridges to dry out, and even when the awns are planted, rice cannot be planted.
The arrival of the small full solar term means that it has entered a rainy season with heavy precipitation, and the rain has begun to increase, and there will often be continuous large-scale heavy precipitation. Xiaoman, like rain, rain, light snow, heavy snow, etc., is a solar term that directly reflects precipitation. Xiaoman reflects the climatic characteristics of heavy rainfall: “Xiaoman Jiangheman” (southern).
During the period of the full solar term, southern China generally receives a lot of rainfall and heavy rainfall. Due to the active warm and humid air currents in the south and the cold air from the north to the south where they meet at the corner of Huang Chi, there will often be continuous and large-scale heavy precipitation in southern China, resulting in torrential rains or extreme torrential rains, just as the folk saying goes, “Xiaoman,” Rivers are full”.
The Jiangnan area is often full of rivers and lakes. If there is less rain at this stage, it may be that the subtropical high pressure in the Pacific is weaker and the location is south, which means that it is the season of Huangmei. In the north, there is little or no rain during the small full solar term. During this period, the temperature rises rapidly, and the temperature difference with the south is further reduced.
From the perspective of climatic characteristics, during the period from the Xiaoman solar term to the awn species solar term, all parts of the country gradually entered the summer, the temperature difference between the north and the south was further reduced, and the precipitation further increased. After Xiaoman, hot weather above 35°C began to appear in the areas south of the Yellow River to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. At this time, attention should be paid to heatstroke prevention.
During the Xiaoman solar term, the Northwest Plateau has entered the rainy season, and the crops are growing vigorously, and there is a thriving scene. However, when there is strong cold air going south, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and other provinces will experience continuous growth from late May to early June. Low temperature and rainy weather with daily average temperature lower than 20°C and daily minimum temperature lower than 17°C for more than 3 days. This climate affects the development of early rice ears and pollination of flowers in these areas. At this time, it is commonly known as “May cold”. People call it “Xiaomanhan”.
Xiaoman has three times. The bitter vegetable show in the first time, the “Bitter vegetable show” on the day of Xiaoman, the bitter vegetable, perennial asteraceae, blooms in spring and summer, feels anger and produces a bitter taste, and can be eaten when it is tender; the second time the grass is dead, and the next five days, the grass is dead. According to Zheng Xuan’s explanation in the Eastern Han Dynasty, it was a grass with thin branches and leaves such as water chestnuts and scorpions. The scorpion had small yellow flowers in March and bears fruit in April. Because it was born of yin qi, it was afraid of yang in summer. Withered; three times when the wheat arrives in autumn, the summer wheat is ready to be harvested in the next five days when the wheat arrives in autumn.