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How did the rulers administer Mongolia in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty successively set up more than 20 Mongolian guards in the eastern and western parts of Liaoning, southern Monan, northern Gansu, and Hami. The chiefs of the guards were all Mongolian feudal lords. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Wala tribe of Moxi Mongolia and the Tatar tribe of eastern Mongolia successively made tribute to the Ming Dynasty and established a vassal relationship.

Mongolia is divided into two parts: Eastern Mongolia is nomadic in Mobei and Monan, and its leader is descended from the Yuan Dynasty, which is regarded as the orthodox of Mongolia; the Wala tribe (the original Wuyila tribe) nomadic in Moxi is called the West Mongolia has an in-law relationship with Eastern Mongolia.

In the 15th century, the north and south of Mongolia was reunified by the Dayan Khan, and the eastern Mongolia was divided into six parts: Kalkha, Uliangha, Ordos, Tumote, Chahar, and Kalaqin (Yongsheb).

Late Ming and early Qing. Mongolia is in a state of separatism, with the desert as the boundary, divided into three parts: Monan Mongolia, Mobei (Kalka) Mongolia, and Moxi (Erut) Mongolia. Idahan in the western part of Monan Mongolia paid attention to repairing with the Ming Dynasty and developing trade relations. Kukuhetun (now Hohhot), where Idahan was stationed, built a fortress and travelled together to become the political, economic and cultural center of Monan Mongolia.

At the end of Ming Dynasty, Jurchen established the Houjin regime. After 1636, Jin changed to Qing, Monan Mongolian feudal masters were successively conquered by the Qing Dynasty. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644, the Qing army entered the Pass to unite China until 1757, when the Junggar tribe was put down. So far, the Mongols were completely under the rule of the Qing Dynasty.

In order to strengthen the rule of the Mongolian people, the Qing Dynasty re-adjusted the original large and small feudal lords of Mongolia and established the Mengqi system in Mongolian areas by referring to the Manchu Eight Banners system. A series of edicts centered on the Mengqi system were issued to strengthen and develop Mongolia’s feudal system. However, the Qing Dynasty promoted Lamaism in Mongolia and implemented a “banned”.

Northern Yuan Dynasty

Mongolian history in the Ming Dynasty is a weak link in Mongolian history research, and domestic research lags behind foreign countries. Japanese scholar Wada Kiyoshi’s “East Asian History Studies: Mongolia Chapter” laid the framework for Mongolian history in the Ming Dynasty.

After the founding of the Ming Dynasty, the remnant forces of the Yuan Dynasty returned to Lingbei. The northern part of the Gobi Desert was the area of ​​activity of the Mongols Beiyuan and the fall of the Beiyuan in 1388, and the Tatar and Wala and Uliangha, and the Ming army against the Beiyuan in the south. The front line. At the end of the 15th century, Dayan Khan, the leader of eastern Mongolia, unified Monan Mongolia to achieve “Zhongxing”.

In 1572, Aletan Khan, the grandson of the Mongolian leader Dayan Khan, led the Tumote tribe to be stationed in Hohhot and built the “Kukuhetun” city in the present Yuquan District. From then on, the Tumote tribe transitioned from nomadic pasture to settled life. . Al Tan Khan had previously entered into a vassal relationship with the Ming Dynasty, and Al Tan Khan was regarded as the “King of Shunyi”. During the Wanli period, the Ming government gave the Chinese name “Guihua”, which means that the Mongols submit to the rule of the Ming court.

The Ming Dynasty set up more than 40 Mongolian guards in the eastern and western parts of Liaoning, southern Monan, northern Gansu, and Hami. The chiefs of the guards were Mongolian feudal lords.

Qing Dynasty

After 1618 (the forty-sixth year of Ming Shenzong Wanli), the leader of Jin, Nurhachi, rose up against the Ming. In 1626, Nurhachi formed an alliance with the Horqin Tribe of Monan Mongolia. After Nurhachi’s death, Emperor Taizong of the Qing Dynasty unified the Monan tribes, and after receiving the Yuan Dynasty’s jade seal, he established the Qing Dynasty in the first year of Chongde (1636), and eventually eliminated Nanming and conquered the whole of China.

Some of the Mongol tribes outside the Great Wall were in alliance or marriage with the Qing rulers, such as the Horqin tribe; others were conquered by the Qing Dynasty, such as the Khalkha tribe, Heshuote tribe, Oirat tribe, Chahar tribe, and Junggar tribe. In the end, the entire Mongolian tribes in East Asia were under the rule of the Qing Dynasty.

In the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia was divided into Inner Mongolia, which was governed by officials, and Outer Mongolia, which was ruled by Zasak. Waifan Mongolia is also called Waizhasak Mongolia (Sixteenth League of Monan Mongolia) and Wuliyasutai and Kobdo (Karkha Mongolia, Moxi Mongolia). Among them, the former became the main part of present-day Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

The concepts of Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia appeared in the official documents of the late Qing Dynasty. The term Inner Mongolia refers to the 49th Banner of Inner Zhasak Mongolia, and Outer Mongolia refers to the 4th Khalkha (sometimes including Kobdo and Tangnu Wulianghai). After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Khalkha Mongols moved towards independence, while Inner Mongolia was under the rule of the Republic of China and belonged to Xing’an, Rehe, Chahar, Suiyuan, and Ningxia provinces. Later ruled by the People’s Republic of China, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was established.

The Mongolian region in the Qing Dynasty implemented the League Banner system. The League is an organization formed by the regular meetings of various ministries, and the banner is formed by disintegrating the original tribe. The highest status among the league flags is the Zhasak and the Hutuktu of Tibetan Buddhism.

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