What contributions did the Maya make to world civilization
The Mayan civilization is a modern jungle civilization distributed in the southeast of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Belize. Although in the Neolithic Age, it has achieved extremely high achievements in astronomy, mathematics, agriculture, art and writing.
According to the Mesoamerican chronology, Mayan history is divided into pre-classical period, classical period and post-classical period. The pre-classical period (1500 BC-300 AD) is also known as the formation period. The invention of calendars and characters, the establishment of monuments, and the construction of buildings are all in this period; the classical period is the heyday (approximately 4th to 9th centuries).
The use of characters, the establishment of monuments, the construction of buildings and the performance of art all reached their peak during this period; in the post-classical period (about 9th to 16th centuries), during this period, Chichen Itza and Uxmal emerged in the north. When city-states rise, culture gradually declines (weaken).
Maya has never had a unified and powerful empire like China, Egypt and other civilizations. The Maya region was divided into hundreds of city-states in its heyday. However, the Mayan states belonged to the same cultural circle in terms of language, writing, religious beliefs, and customs. In the 16th century, the Aztec Empire, the inheritor of Mayan culture, was wiped out by the Spanish Empire.
The Maya are a very mysterious race in the world. They are proficient in divination and prediction. The Maya culture is one of the greatest classical cultures in the world. The Maya are in agriculture, handicrafts, construction, astronomy, art, literature, philosophy and many other fields. Made great contributions to world civilization.
First of all, in agricultural production, food varieties that have made major contributions to mankind have been cultivated, such as corn, tomatoes, pumpkins, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers and tobacco, among which the most important is the cultivation of corn.
Secondly, the Maya also created the urban economy. There are many cities in Maya. According to statistics, in the 8th century AD, different Mayan tribes in the world have established more than 100 cities, among which Palenque and Copan are the more famous ones.
The Maya also made great contributions to mankind in terms of architecture and art. They built many magnificent palaces, temples, and tombs with stones. The Mayan buildings are magnificent and magnificent. In the remaining Mayan ruins in the tropical jungles of Yucatan and Guatemala, we can still see the bright colors and beautiful patterns on the broken walls.
Again, the Maya’s achievements in astronomical calendar and mathematical operations were second to none in the world at that time. They set the year as 365 days, the year is divided into 18 months, 20 days a month, and the remaining 5 days are regarded as taboo days; the Mayans will also calculate the cycle of the moon, Venus and other planets, and the time of the solar eclipse. .
In addition, the Mayans also created hieroglyphs, which can be used to express all things and human emotions, and they have philosophical and idealized thoughts. The Mayans, like other early humans, originally believed in shamanism and worshiped the gods of nature, especially the sun god, calling the sun god Ichana.
Finally, the Maya have a wealth of historical and literary documents. After creating the hieroglyphs, they created thousands of books and countless stone carvings. Unfortunately, most of the books were burned by the Spaniards. Only the “Kachikel Almanac”, “Chilan Baran” and ” Popor U and “Samurai of Rabinal”.
Beginning in the 9th century, the city-states of the classical Mayan civilization suddenly declined at the same time, which is still a mystery to this day. By the 10th century AD, the once prosperous Mayan cities were abandoned in the jungle.
After that, with Chichen Itza as the leader, some Mayan city-states emerged in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. At this time, the post-classical period called Maya civilization began in historiography. The city-state regime of Chichen Itza was overthrown in 1224, followed by the city-state alliance headed by Mayapan. In 1450, the Mayapan regime collapsed due to civil strife. When the Spaniards landed on the American continent, the Mayan region was in a state of disintegration.
Contrary to the legend, the Maya have never disappeared. There are still three million Mayans living in the Yucatan Peninsula. Many people still speak the Mayan language today.