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The historical development of Temple of Heaven, China

The Temple of Heaven is the largest surviving temple building in my country and the largest building complex in the world. The inner altar is divided into two parts: the inner altar and the outer altar. The inner altar is divided into the north and the south. The north is the “Pray for Valley Altar”. To the south is the “Wuqiu Altar”, the central building is the “Wuqiu”, there are also Zhai Palace, No-Liang Hall, Echo Wall, Sanyin Stone and so on. The two altars are connected by a 360-meter-long Danbi Bridge.

On both sides are large areas of Gübelin. The outer altar is equipped with a “Sacred Music Department”. The four great sounds of the Temple of Heaven are: the echo of the echo wall, the opposite of the dialogue stone, the repetition of the three-tone stone, and the empty sound of the Tianxin stone.

The Temple of Heaven is the place where the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties “sacrifice to heaven” and “pray for the valley”. It is located in the southeast corner of Beijing City. It covers an area of ​​273 hectares. It has double altar walls, divided into inner altar and outer altar. The main buildings are in the inner altar.

There are Yuqiu Altar and Emperor Dome in the south, and the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests and the Hall of Emperor God in the north. The Danbi Bridge, 2.5 meters high, 28 meters wide, and 360 meters long, is connected into a group with complete layout, beautiful body and unique artistic style Buildings. Some buildings also skillfully use the principles of mechanics, acoustics, and geometry, which are one of the most precious heritages for studying ancient architectural science in my country.

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests to the north was formerly the Daxiang Hall built in the 24th year of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty (1545). The roof was originally covered with glazed tiles of blue, yellow, and green. In the 16th year of Qianlong (1751), when the palace was repaired, blue glazed tiles were used. Below the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest is a three-story white marble base with an area of ​​5,900 square meters and a height of 6 meters.

The surrounding wall is square, symbolizing a round sky. The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests is 38 meters high and 32.72 meters in diameter, with three layers of blue glazed eaves, which shrink upwards layer by layer, symbolizing the connection with the sky. The top of the temple is crowned with a gilt and treasured roof, which is dazzling. The structure of the main hall is very unique. The four dragon well pillars in the middle are 19.2 meters high and represent the four seasons of the year. The 12 golden pillars in the middle symbolize the 12 months of a year, and the 12 eaves pillars in the outer layer represent 12 hours. The 24 inner and outer pillars symbolize 24 solar terms. In the middle of the floor of the hall is a round marble with natural dragon and phoenix patterns. It faces the Panlongzao well in the center of the hall, and the ceiling pattern around it is also round. It is painted with gold, which looks very magnificent.

The imperial dome on the south side was originally built in the 9th year of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty (1530) and rebuilt in the 17th year of Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty (1752). It was originally used to store the “Emperor God” tablet. It is 19.02 meters high and 15.6 meters in diameter. sparkling. The hall is supported by eight golden pillars and eight silver pillars. The structure is exquisite, which is rare in ancient buildings. There is also a matching hall on the east and west sides of the front of the Emperor Qiongyu. Outside the hall is a circular wall with a diameter of 65.1 meters. This is the echo wall. It is built by clever use of acoustic principles. If you speak against the wall in one place, you can hear it clearly in the other place (which can be turned at many angles). In front of the steps of the ancient emperor dome, there are three wonderful echo stones.

Going south from the imperial dome is the mound altar for offering sacrifices to the heavens. It was also built in the ninth year of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty (1530). It is an open-air three-story circular stone altar. Each floor is surrounded by white marble railings and railings. Because the ancients believed that nine is the so-called “extreme of the sun number”, to show that the celestial body is the highest and the largest, so the number of platform stones, steps, and railings in the Temple of Heaven are nine multiple. There is a stone slab in the center of the stone altar, standing on it shouting, the echo is very loud, this is caused by the refraction of sound waves.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Temple of Heaven became a park, with three gates from east to west and north to west. There is a 1 km long Cooper Avenue at the main population of Ximen, which leads directly to Danbi Bridge. There is a “Bronze Man of Fasting” in Daonan Zhaiguan. According to legend, it was cast in imitation of the Tang Wei Zheng.

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