History of Russian Literature
Russian literature began in the Middle Ages. (10th century), that is, during the 50 years after the Greek Orthodox Christianity Has been published in Russia. Which is the result of the invention of the alphabet And the first written language in Russian By two Greek priests, Kyril (Кирилл) and St. Methodius, in the year 988, the first literary works and is considered the writings of the priest. Which is a religious story It is not clear what was written in AD. The first Russian literature to appear as historical evidence is the “epic about the battle of Prince Igor” (Слово о полку Игореве). Honor the heroism of Prince Igor. And soldiers dressed by unidentified sages Written in the 12th century, it is thought to be one of the best of medieval Europe.
The outstanding literature of Russia in the later period it began during the reign of the Queen Kathryn. In this era, Russian literature was influenced by German, English and French literature due to the tide of Western civilization that began in the early century. Has flooded the original Russian civilization flows in high society almost completely ended. Which is due to the policy of opening the country to receive the western queen Katrine And she was a native of German. Nikolai Novikov (Николай Новиков), the editor of social satirical journals in general at the time, received criticism. And satirizes the regime and policies of Lady Katrine Until the journal was closed in the year. 1773 and was incarcerated.
After that, Kathryn the Great Queen Also ordered the exile Alexander Radee, the master chef of the script, criticized her regime. That has a good policy with foreigners and the elite Without paying attention to the poor farmers Which is the majority of the country whose title is Her “journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow” (Путешествия из Санкт-Петербурга в Москву) from her act became the beginning of the gathering of the intellectuals. Who disagree with her system and actions Form a group with ideas that will revolutionize the abolition of institutions and governments. A well-known and generally accepted author during the reign of Queen Cathrine was Nicolai Karamzine (Николай Карамзин 1766-1826), who was both a novelist and historian.
That is overflowing with abilities Until he was appointed as an honorary graduate school The work that made him the most famous is A compilation of stories about the history of Russia’s states and dynasties from its inception to the 18th century, he spent 12 years studying and compiling up to 12 books in the “History of the Russian Government.”
The idea of such an arrangement, Nicolai Karamzine, was derived from studying the work of French novelist Jean Jacques Rousseau and British author Samuel Richardson and Laurence Sterne. Has written literature that can be considered the first Russian novel. Which was written along the Sentimental line, which was popular in Western Europe at that time, was “Russian Traveler Letter” (Письмо русского путешественника) and later wrote a novel. “Poor Losa” (Бедная Лиза), which used the original sentimental style of writing, earned him the nickname. “Who gave birth to sentimentalism in Russia”.
Russian Art and Culture
January 1, New Year’s Day,
originally this day was the only New Year’s holiday on the Soviet calendar, today Russian people take this holiday very seriously. Because they can rest continuously for a long time Some years are closed from December 31st until January 7. And bless one another among close relatives and friends.
January 7 Russian Orthodox Christmas
is a public holiday. The Russians consider January 7 to be Christmas due to adherence to the old calendar. Because in the year before 1918, Russia used a different calendar than the one used by Europe (the one we use today), with the European calendar and the Russian calendar there are 13 different days in total. When the Soviet government overthrow the feudal system Therefore switched to the general European calendar until now But the Russian people still celebrate and remember the traditions that go on until today.
January 13, the original Russian New Year. (Old-Calendar New Year)
Russians also celebrate New Year ‘s Day on the 13th because it adheres to the old calendar.
February 23 Homeland Defender’s Day,
formerly Red Army Day. (Communism) Because in 1923 all men in Russia were called to report to the war against the German soldiers. Today it is celebrated to commemorate the victory over the German monarchy in 1918. It is also held informally as a day for men. Women will symbolically give men a small gift.
March 8 International Women’s Day
is a day to celebrate the International Women’s Day established by the United Nations. Today is a very important day in Russia. And considered a public holiday On this day men will give gifts to women. Usually flowers Or someone will help his wife with chores such as going to the kitchen to cook. For women, etc.
May 1 Labor Day
is the day of laborers. In Russia, it is also considered a day to celebrate spring. The Communist Party originally announced it as an official holiday as “Labor Labor Day” to commemorate the victory of the working class, a vital force in the Communist system. There were military marches and various working class marches from 1917 until 1992. “Spring and Labor Day” after the change of government to democracy. Today, people still give the same importance to Labor Day as they were in Soviet times. Often they rest by going out into the woods to barbecues to eat together with close relatives and friends.
May 9 Victory Day
was the day when German Nazi soldiers surrendered to the Soviet army in 1945 after a four-year battle as a result of the war. More than 20 million Soviet soldiers were killed.
June 12 Independence Day (Independence Day)
was the day when President Boris Yeltsin announced that Russia left the Soviet Union as a new country in 1994, and today it is also considered a Russian public holiday.
September 1 Knowledge Day
The first day of the school year in all schools and regions of Russia. The student goes to school with flowers to give to the teacher.
November 4 People’s Unity Day
is a day when the unity is gathered. Of Moscow people regardless of race, religion and social status to act against The incoming Polish invasion in 1612
November 7, Revolution Day
in the Soviet era. Today is considered a very important day, with a great celebration. And there are military marches In those days, the day was a public holiday. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, celebrations dwindled. But today it is still considered a public holiday until 2005 was canceled as a public holiday. And change the public holiday to November 4 instead, with the name called People’s Unity Day, the revolutionary day that occurred on October 25, based on the old calendar.
12 December Constitution Day (Constitution Day)
is the day when the first constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted in 1993, since the former constitution was owned by the government of the Soviet Union.
In addition, the Russians are very fond of celebrating holidays. That the people of the world celebrate Russians also celebrate Valentine’s Day, Christmas (both Catholic and Orthodox), such as April 1st, also known as April’s fools day, or it will be Halloween. Russia’s holiday, if it falls on a weekend, there will be a compensation shutdown as in Thailand. During long holidays, such as the New Year, Russians often go abroad or abroad and take vacations. The other holidays Most of the time people take a trip to Dasha or other outdoor lodges to appreciate nature.
Russian wedding traditions
Russian people describe the wedding as “Русская свадьба не может без драки”. Which wedding are the guests at the event? Not drunk and drunk. Or no fights in the works It shows that the wedding is not a Russian wedding. Fun wedding And the best in the meaning of the Russian people It is a wedding in which the host truly brings joy to the guests at the event. And one of the joys that the Russians value is the joy of drinking for the wedding couple’s important day. This fight Not a show But caused by the guests at the event such as relatives of the bride and groom or friends Who drink until drunk and eventually end up at boxing fists But these matters Russian people are considered normal in weddings. Because it shows that The host organized a feast so great that it was able to make people in the party get drunk like that… .. But if it is a Thai job, then… .. I doubt I will be able to register for a divorce that day.
Learning about the culture and marriage traditions of people of each race; It was fun. Because each race has different beliefs, traditions, and cultural traditions, such as the Russian marriage traditions that are going to talk about this. There are parts that are similar and different from Thai society. Some stories may make Thai people like us. There was some sense of humor about the difference. And may not see the meaning of some matters more than fun. But for the Russians All the events that happened at the wedding Are all meanings that everyone must focus on And in some things that we think are not important But for him it turned out to be something that was “indispensable”
Let’s try to get to know The Russian marriage tradition is roughly a little, that is, in the past. His wedding tradition is quite similar to that of Thai tradition, for the man to ask his parents to propose to the female. But nowadays, this form of tradition has faded, becoming the woman who speaks to her parents about the marriage needs of their own men. Russia’s marriage does not have many dowry, such as Thailand. The key thing to have at every wedding is the ring that the man will give to the woman. And the ring that the woman will give to the man Before the couple traveled to register their marriage The man will pick up the bride from home. Which is a gathering place of relatives, friends, and guests of the bride Before the groom reaches the bride Must pass various tests Of relatives and friends of the bride in this tradition, the Russian people called Выкуп невесты or translated as Bride Redemption Ceremony That often make fun games Let the groom follow Some difficult, some easy .
To test your patience and perseverance of the groom, such as following orders, singing songs, dancing strange gestures, guessing problems, then asking to collect the tolls. Which the groom may give a candy, milk, butter, candy, chocolate or activity money before reaching the bride Is similar to the so-called Thai Silver Door, Golden Door The Russians hint at the event as a hint of the groom’s ability to break through the barriers to meet the bride. He is the right person to possess the bride. Is similar to the so-called Thai Silver Door, Golden Door The Russians hint at the event as a hint of the groom’s ability to break through the barriers to meet the bride. He is the right person to possess the bride. Is similar to the so-called Thai Silver Door, Golden Door The Russians hint at the event as a hint of the groom’s ability to break through the barriers to meet the bride. He is the right person to possess the bride.