The relationship between the Mesopotamian civilization and the Sumerians
Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name for the Mesopotamia, which means the land between the two rivers. The two rivers refer to the Euphrates and Tigris. Mesopotamian civilization has the world’s earliest texts, schools, epics, libraries, codes, mathematics, astronomy, geography, architecture, etc.
Among them are the cuneiform script invented by the Sumerians around 3200 BC, the Nepur scribes school opened around 2100 BC, the Sumerian and Babylonian literary work “Epic of Gilgamesh”, collected The Assyrian Barnibal Library with 24,000 clay tablets has a foreword, an afterword, and the 282-article “Code of Hammurabi”, and there are more than 30 tons of human face beast body with wings as the guardian of the beast It describes the king’s palace, the Babylonians’ trigonometric algebra operations, the Babylonians’ accurate predictions of solar and lunar eclipses in 747 BC, the new Babylonian city decorated with glazed bricks and the legendary Tower of Babel and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon .
Mesopotamia is located in the plain and lacks natural barriers. For thousands of years, many ethnic groups have experienced the process of contact, invasion, and integration. Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Assyrians, Elamites, Kassites, Hurits, Chaldeans and other ethnic groups entered Mesopotamia successively. After the prehistoric era of Obaid, early Uruk, Sumer and Akkad, the advanced Babylonian and huge Assyrian empire were later established. The New Babylon established by the Chaldeans pushed Mesopotamian civilization to its peak.
Mesopotamia has been a very harsh environment, dry and hot, flooded rivers, and extremely unsuitable for human habitation for thousands of years. However, the Sumerians have established here with their own wisdom. The earliest civilization of mankind.
At that time, the Sumerians had already mastered extremely rich knowledge and superb technology. They tamed the flooding rivers, mastered Fengfu’s knowledge and superb technology very early, and thus cultivated rich fields. . The Sumerians not only invented cuneiform writing, recorded many myths, epics, speeches and other works, but also had a fairly advanced calendar and invented numbers from 1 to 5.
The most commendable thing is that they established a very complete legal system at the time. The famous Code of Hammurabi in the later period was established by the Babylonians based on the Sumerian Code. Many historians believe that the earth civilization originated in the place where the Sumerians lived, and the later Maya civilization also has many similarities to the Sumerian civilization. Sumerians suddenly appeared and disappeared suddenly. When and how did they learn the cuneiform and pagoda-style building techniques? To this day, this is still a mystery in the archaeological world.
Where is the origin of the Sumerians? So far, the archaeological community still has no clear answer, and its appearance seems to be a miracle. Those overly majestic buildings and those advanced and complicated irrigation methods still puzzle people.
Some people believe that, under the circumstances at the time, such a developed civilization could only come from an alien planet, and Sumerian legends also have relevant evidence. It is said that their ancestors were descendants of the gods who descended to the world. From some ancient Sumerian epics, words and passages similar to those describing flying in the air can also be found. However, more archaeologists tend to believe that the Sumerians are a branch of an ancient nation.
The temples they used for offering sacrifices were often built on tall buildings, which looked like mountain tops, so some scholars believed that the Sumerians were probably from the eastern mountains. In addition, judging from the stamps unearthed from the Sumerian ruins, the style of some stamps in Sumer is very similar to that of ancient India. Some people think that they have some kind of connection with Indians, and others think that their voice is somewhat similar to Chinese people. To get a definitive conclusion, people need to conduct further research.