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How did Ireland become a country

Around 7000 BC, a group of Orion came to the island of Ireland from Great Britain and became the first settlers. Then came the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age civilizations.

In the 6th century BC, the Celts successively invaded Ireland from Central Europe, gradually forming a unified writing and language, establishing at least five small kingdoms, becoming the ancestors of modern Irish people, but failing to form a unified country.

In 432, St. Patrick came here to spread Christianity and Roman culture. After the 9th century, it was constantly invaded by Vikings from around Norway.

From 1169 to 1171, Richard de Claire, the second Earl of Pembroke, under King Henry II of England, led an army to invade and win a decisive victory in the Siege of Dublin.

In 1542, Henry VIII of England became King of Ireland. Since 1560, there have been wars against British colonization in many places in Ireland. After the British Civil War, the British gradually eroded the territory and sovereignty of Ireland.

In 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain were unified, and Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom.

In 1845, the poor potato harvest caused the great famine in Ireland. The British government did not provide much assistance when it was able to import food from the Americas. This reduced the population of Ireland by a quarter and caused many Irish people to become dissatisfied with the United Kingdom. The Irish Independence Movement begin.

In 1916, the “Easter Uprising” against Britain broke out in Dublin.

In 1919, most of the Irish MPs elected in the 1918 general election refused to serve in the British House of Commons, and they formed the Irish Parliament (Dáil Éireann) on their own.

In January 1919, a unilateral declaration of independence was issued in the name of the independent “Republic of Ireland”. At that time, Ireland was not recognized internationally, but after the Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence), the representatives of the two sides reached the Anglo-Irish Treaty, giving Ireland legal autonomy, that is, the status of a dominion.

Ireland established the Irish Free State, and its territory includes the entire island of Ireland, but the treaty allows the six northern counties (that is, Northern Ireland) not to participate in the Irish Free State. The Irish Free State Constitution also stipulates that Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. The King of Ireland is concurrently held by the King of England. At the same time, the position of Governor is established. The Parliament implements a bicameral system, establishes an “administrative committee” (ie cabinet), and establishes the chairmanship of the executive committee.

On December 6, 1921, the British were forced to allow the 26 southern counties to establish a “Free State”, and the six northern counties still belonged to the United Kingdom.

On December 29, 1937, Ireland adopted the new Irish Constitution and officially designated the country as “Ireland”, declaring love as a sovereign, independent, and democratic country that remained in the Commonwealth. The president of Ireland was established, but the king continued to be the symbol of the Irish state in the international arena according to statutory law.

The Republic of Ireland Act passed on April 1, 1949 finally abolished the monarchy, handed all the powers of the king to the president, and Ireland became a republic. According to Article 4 of the Irish Constitution, “Éire” is the name of the country, while Articles 2 and 3 declare that Ireland also has sovereignty over Northern Ireland (this article was abolished in 1999), so the Republic of Ireland generally claims to be in the diplomatic field “Éire” (such as the Irish Constitution, the President of Ireland).

However, because the United Kingdom actually exercises sovereignty over the six northern counties, many countries avoid directly using the word “Éire” to take care of Northern Ireland’s position and avoid being partial.

In April 1949, after Ireland announced the establishment of a republic, it automatically withdrew from the Commonwealth. Although Ireland has not re-applied to join the Commonwealth, it retains the rights of many member states and enjoys a special status in the United Kingdom. Britain recognized its independence on April 18, 1949, but the six northern counties still belonged to the United Kingdom.

In 1955, Ireland joined the United Nations and at the same time cooperated with the United Kingdom to resolve the violent conflict in Northern Ireland. The Belfast Agreement (English: Belfast Agreement) passed by voters in Ireland and Northern Ireland in 1998 is currently being implemented.

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