Borobudur Temple Compounds in Indonesia
Borobudur Temple Compounds is another important architecture of Mahayana Buddhism and is an important place and is a famous tourist destination in Indonesia Built around the 13th-14th century around the year 1293-1393 during the reign of the Lentra Dynasty of Java Built with the faith of Buddhism of the people of Srivijaya Each sculpture is beautifully and beautifully arranged and has an implication of natural or universe.
Borobudur Temple Compounds located in the central part of Java island on the Ketu plains on the right bank near the Progo River 40 kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta.
Importance and architectural features
Borobudosto is built from lava or Andesite, a large volcanic rock. With a total area of approximately 55,000 square meters, creating a pyramid shape with terraces with terraces. The base is a square shape, approximately 118 meters wide on each side. There are stairs and arches to the pagoda. There are 10 floors. Levels 1-6 are four-shaped courtyards, while floors 7-10 are courtyards. The circular shape around the circular courtyard has 72 inverted bell pagodas, each containing a Buddha image. Located on 3 levels, surrounded by a large pagoda which is located on the highest circle circle.
The pre-construction characteristics of Borobudur Has a fair meaning as follows:
- The base of the Borobudur It consists of 4 large steps. The wall around the base has a sculpture showing the human being that is still involved in happiness. This desire is like being in the erotic phase.
- The second part, the porch wall, depicting stories about Buddha’s history and allegory. Like the process by which humans began to be liberated from some secular world Considered as a landscape
The third part is a circular base with 72 inverted bell-shaped pagodas, each containing a Buddha image.
- Surrounded by 3 large pagodas, the 72 pagodas in the Dharma means the image of 18 Chetik 52, Jit 1, Nirvana 1 and the base of the pagoda in the form of a lotus blossom, indicating awakening and joy.
- As for the big pagoda, which does not contain anything inside Convey to the emptiness The ultimate of nirvana This part is like the process that humans are no longer attached to the world. Considered as a landscape.
Borobudur maintained a great extent that held people’s hearts until the beginning of the 18th century, near the end of Srivijaya’s era. In which the Portuguese began to take over the islands And the influence of Islam has replaced So Borobudho was forgotten and abandoned for hundreds of years. Until in the 24th century, Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles, the Dutch people discovered Borobudosto in ruins. Had its first restoration during 1905-1910 Later, between 1970-1990, the Indonesian government underwent major restoration with the UNESCO. Funded Including funding from some Buddhist countries Including Thailand.
Registration as a world heritage site
Borobudur was registered as a World Cultural Heritage under the name “Borommudho Temple Group” in 1991. At the 15th ordinary World Heritage Committee meeting in Carthage, Thailand. Tunisia Which meets the requirements and criteria for considering cultural heritage in the amount of 3 items as:
- a representation of a masterpiece created with intelligent human creativity.
- a very powerful thing Push for continuous development in architectural design, monuments, sculptures, gardens and landscapes, as well as the development of related arts or the development of human settlement Which has occurred in a certain period of time Or on any area Of the world that preserves culture.
- have thoughts or beliefs that are directly related to the event Or is outstanding in history.