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What is First Crusade History?

Crusade (Al Hamat Asshliibiya, translated as “Cross of War”) is a series of religious battles outside of the country. That was made holy by Pope Urbana 2 and the Catholic Church There is a stated goal of restoring Christian holy access in and near Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the holy city and symbol of the three main Abrahams religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam).

Background The Crusade was born when Seljuk Turks had a decisive victory over the Byzantine army. 1071 and eliminated access to Jerusalem by Christians Byzantine emperor Alexis I was afraid that all of Asia Minor would be compromised. He called on Western Christian leaders and the pope to come to help Constantinople by going on a pilgrimage or the religious war to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Another reason was the destruction of the place.

A large number of Christian were holy and persecuted of Christians under al-Hakim. Fatiphaya Dynasty. Crusaders consist of Roman Catholic soldiers from all over Western Europe. And not under total commanding power Main set crusade Especially the target of the Levant Muslims occurred between 1095 and 1291. Historians give a lot of previous crusades.

After having some initial success The latter crusade failed. And the Crusaders were forced to go home Hundreds of thousands of soldiers became crusades by vowing. The Pope gave them the plenary indulgence. The symbol of these warriors is the cross. The word “crusade” comes from the French language meaning to lift the cross up. Many soldiers came from France and called themselves “Frank”, which became a common term used by Muslims.

The term “crusade” is also used to describe a military motive that runs between 1100 and 1600 AD in addition to Levant. Which is usually a war with pagan people Maverick and the people under the ban (Excommunication) for religious reasons Economic and political combination The rivalry between Christians and Musulim also leads to bonds between religious groups against their rivals. For example, Christians were allied with the Sultanate of Islam during the Fifth Crusade.

The crusade had a huge impact on politics. Economy and society towards Western Europe It weakened the Christian Byzantine Empire. And lost to the Turks over the centuries. Later, Rek Gita, the long war in the Iberian Peninsula Which Christians are conquering the Peninsula from Muslims Is closely related to the Crusades

Each crusade

There were many crusades. But the largest significant period occurred between the 11th and 13th centuries, with 9 major wars being fought in this great war and several minor wars during that time. Sometimes wars occur within Europe itself, such as Spain, and there are minor wars throughout the 16th century until the Renaissance and religious reform
The First Crusade 1095-1101.

Pope Urban II, in the House of Clemons, proclaims to usurp the holy land

Beginning in 1095, Pope Urban II (Rome II) of Rome gathered a Christian army to Jerusalem. The first phase of Peter the Hermit’s army led the great army first. The main army is about 50,000 people, mostly from France, led by Robert Kurtthus, Duke of Normandy, son of William I of England.

Finally, in 1099, the army traveled from Antioch to the city walls. And the stronghold near the wall besieged Jerusalem. Muslim forces known as Sarasen fought with strength. But ultimately, the Crusade broke through And killing all non-Christians, even Muslims in the city or Jews in religious places, were all killed Leaving only the original guardian at that time who was allowed to leave But the news of the battle did not reach the pope because he died a few days later

The leader of the selected holy warriors, Godfrey of Bouyoung, who had served for a year, died. In July 1100 Baldwin from Edessa became king. His Royal Highness married Princess Armenia. But without a heir to the throne He died in 1118, the reigning grandfather of Baldwin, so reigned as the King Baldwin II of the Holy Kingdom. There are 3 daughters. And interesting is that the throne inherits the eldest daughter or queen. And the consort will reign as the first king.

The Crusade is mainly caused by differences in beliefs in each religion. Until causing not understanding each other In which the beginning was Muslims wanting to occupy the holy land, Jerusalem In addition, political reasons are another cause of war. Because in those days the economy in Europe was in decline Bishop, a religious leader in Catholicism And has power over the king And possessing enormous assets Even believed at that time that If possible, all parents want their sons to be priests in order to be bishops or religious leaders.

The crusade has killed enormous lives and property of humanity. Because Bishops claimed that he was able to baptize the Crusade. And allowed to rob, kill, and detain extraterrestrial beings Which these principles do not exist in the Bible And the nobles of those days wished to confiscate the riches of the Jews And want to have influence in Europe to the Middle East, so use the pretense of religion to claim in this war.

The result of this crusade killed many people, from Jews in Europe to Jews in Jerusalem. And causing Muslims and Christians to be in conflict, even though both religions Although both are different, they can live together in that region. And the crusade, causing these conflicts to remain today

But the result of that crusade Causing many changes to Europe Causing contact between Western and Eastern world In the form of trade, which is called the era of trade reform and creating an art revival Creating an integrated architecture of two religions As well as knowledge the study came up with.

The Second Crusade (1147–1149)

Feudalism used by the crusaders in Asia Minor also spread among Muslims. Muslims and peoples in the Middle East were fighting for power. Broken into many cities. Imaduddin Zangi, the son of Aksugur al-Hajab, the governor of Haklap or Aleppo (Latin: Aleppo), under the kingdom of Maliksa. In 1127 AD became the Atakek (ruler of Mosul) and later 1128 gathered Aleppo under his power. By sided with the king of sign Which is usurping the territories of the Abbasiah kingdom.

In the year 1135, he tried to beat Damascus When compiled under power But unsuccessful On the way to withdraw the army back to Aleppo Had hit the city of Hemsฺ To seize it for one’s himself. But unsuccessful strike. Two years later, Sanki returned to Himmes again. But also failed again The city of Damascus, when afraid that Sanki will march to the city again. Had ties with the crusades of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Sangki goes to attack the crusades. Until the clash at Barin Ful, the kingdom of Jerusalem was defeated Led the surviving army to flee from Jerusalem. Sangki ties with Damascus. When he saw that he had no ability to overcome Together with the news that Emperor John Comnenus took the city of Antigua. That the crusades ruled Entering the Byzantine Kingdom And sent his army to the city of Aleppo

The crusaders sent by the emperor John Comnenus seized the city of Buzaa, killing all the men and forcing women and children into slavery. Although Sanki plans to take over the city of Damascus later. To the point of marrying Mrs. Sumurud, the ruler of the city, by raising the city of Homsฺ as a dowry And later the ruler was assassinated Sanki could not take over the city of Damascus as his own. Later, the city of Damascus returned to revive the relationship with the Crusades again. And together attacked Sangi’s army at Banias.

Sangkee stormed the city of Edessa under the Crusades on December 24, 1114. This was the beginning of the Second Crusade. Sang Ng was a slave by his servants. Is Frank Assassinated on the 5th, Rabbi Usanee 541 falls on September 14, 1146. Sangi has 4 children, all of whom are capable. During this difficult time, Christians in the city of Edessa Think of a rebel killing a Muslim soldier who is guarding the city and receiving help from Frank Under the leadership of Joscellin.

The Third Crusade (1187–1192)

Saladin Al-Aiyubay reinstated Jerusalem in 1187. When Saladin had heard the news of Frank’s troops. Therefore meeting the army officers by commenting that they will attack while walking in the army But the generals said to have hit them when they reached the outskirts of Acre. And one wing touched the sea Makes it easy to receive supplies from Europe If Saladin started attacking them while traveling Would not have experienced such a tight situation The Turkish troops from the nearby city came to help, and on Day 1 Sha 585 (14 September 1189), Saladin began attacking the Crusades.

One of his grandsons, Takyud Dean, showed great courage in battle. Now, Saladin’s troops are far less powerful than the Krusades. Because of defending the outpost defenders, such as the confirmed border with Tripoli, Edessa, Antioch, Alexandria, etc. In the outskirts of Agca The crusaders killed about 10,000.

An epidemic occurred because of the bodies of these soldiers. Due to being engaged in war Unable to keep the battle clean Saladin himself was also affected by this epidemic. The doctors advised them to withdraw the troops and set up their positions in Al-Khrabuba. The crusaders then entered the city of Akka and began to dig ditches around the city.

Saladin had a letter to Moroccan Sultan to join the army, but these were denied. In the spring, Saladin’s army again attacked the city of Akka. The Crusades have strengthened themselves and built many towers. But all were shot by Saladang’s army with fireballs A fire destroyed everything. He was now joined by Egypt, arrived by ship, and fought from elsewhere too.

The frank lost their fighting in Egypt. The crusaders were killed and the army lost a lot. But at the end of July 1190, Count Henry of Champagne Who had a relationship with the King of France had arrived Saladin withdrew his army to remain at Al Khoraruba. Had left a small army that bravely fought the crusaders Now the crusades were unable to progress. Therefore a letter to Pippi asked to organize reinforcements to help The Christians return to join the Crusades again.

Because it was considered that this “pagan” battle caused him to be omitted from all sins and to heaven Saladin has prepared his troops to deal with them fully. His son Ali, Usman, and Josie were in the middle of the army, while the right-wing of the brother named Saifuddine was the general.

On the left, he commanded the governors of the city, but on that day of battle, Saladin himself was ill Therefore watched the battle from one of the mountains The crusaders were struck by the sea, badly damaged. They started to lack food and as the cold season came in, they stopped the battle.

Up to early spring Which was in April 1191, the Crusades received another reinforcement With the French King invading the army At the same time, King Richard Jai Singh of England is also coming with an army. There are 20 warships full of soldiers and ammunition. Saladin’s support was not ready. Muslim soldiers in Agca were less powerful and therefore surrendered to the Khrushes.

In which a Muslim general, Min, Tashub, guarding Akka, was taken care of by the French royal family but was denied unless Muslims will give Jerusalem The Muslims then fought back to the end of their lives. While the siege of the city and the fighting were like this, an epidemic arose. In the end, there was a condition that Muslims had to return the crucifix (originally Jesus’ day) and have to pay a fine of 200,000 gold bars, but because of the time needed to find this amount of gold.

King Richard Jai Sing of England The historians who praised and admired each other captured 27,000 Muslim soldiers from the city and cut them in front of them. The city of Agca fell into the hands of these crusader criminals. Saladin’s troops had to retreat to another location because they were less powerful and lacked enough troops. At one point a ship from Egypt transported supplies to help. But almost captured by the Crusades The master of the ship ordered the sinking of the boat along with all the people in the ship.

The crusade under the leadership of Richard Jai Singh invaded Asgala (Latin: Ascolon). Saladin held the army in support of 11 courageous battles. Times in battles in Astrology Saladin lost about 8,000 soldiers, who were good soldiers and daredevils. When he saw that he was not able to protect Palestine Therefore moved his army to Assam and Orlane Evacuate all, then demolish the building When King Richard arrived Saw only the deserted town.

Therefore made an armistice agreement as well By sending soldiers to meet the younger brother Salahuddin, named Saifuddin (Latin: Saphadin). The two met The son of the ruler of the crusade was an interpreter. Richard then said that he wanted to make a truce. Including conditions Which is a condition that the Muslim party cannot accept That meeting didn’t work.

The Marquis of Firfer, who joined the army, saw that the promise Therefore sent a message to Saladin By specifying certain conditions But this contract is not effective as well Later, King Richard met Saladin and negotiated a truce agreement. With the condition that The crusaders had possession of the cities they had beaten, and the Muslims had to return Jerusalem to the crusades.

Together with a wooden cross Which they believe is the wood that Jesus was tormented by the Jews Saladin refused to give the city of Jerusalem to the Crusades But surrendered on the issue of the crucifix mentioned in the condition that The Crusades had to strictly adhere to their promises. This negotiation was not effective either. King Richard therefore turned to negotiations with Sayfood Dean, commenting that this negotiation Would become effective when Saladin agreed with the late mold

The condition is that

  1. King Richard is pleased to give his sister, who is a widow (originally the wife of the king over the island of Sicily) to Sayfooden (brother Salahuddine).
  2. The betrothal of this marriage is King Richard will take all the cities he can beat. According to the seashore for her sister And Saladin had to give the cities that he had captured to his brother as a way to give a good respite.
  3. Take Jerusalem as the center of the city Given to this couple And the religion of both parties has the right to reside Freely living in this city Towns and religious buildings that love ruins Help each other to repair
  4. Saladang complied with this condition. But the contract was not effective again Because the Christian clergy do not allow Christians to take their own daughter, sister, or woman to marry a Muslim, whom they consider to be “pagan”, the bishops gather to drive Richard away from God. Christianity became the people Pagan And threatened his numerous sisters.

King Richard then met Sfood Dean again. Please change from Islam to Christianity. But Saifoodine refused. At the same time, King Richard was annoyed by the Marquis of Monferrak, so hired the natives to assassinate. When the matter arrived like this King Richard was discouraged and wanted to go back home. Because he couldn’t beat Jerusalem. Offered the conditions for a ceasefire agreement with Saladin refusing to comply with certain conditions.

Because some of the cities mentioned are very important for the protection of the kingdom Can’t let it slip away But the efforts of these two warriors continued Until finally, on 22 Cha’aban 588 (2 September 1192), both parties made a permanent cease-fire agreement and King Richard returned to his home country. He mobilized through eastern Europe by disguising But was captured by the Christians imprisoned The British had to send a large amount of money to redeem him.

The 3rd crusade ended here. With the loss of hundreds of thousands of human lives Millions of people are homeless. The city is destroyed. Afterwards, Saladin deployed a small group of soldiers to inspect coastal cities. And repaired the various places and returned to Damascus with his family Until his death on 27 November 589 (4 March 1193) was only 55 years old

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